Food production 1 unit 2


Unit 2

Culinary History

Food Production Operation 1


<h4>The Origin of Cooking</h2>
The art of cooking is ancient. The cook was a primitive man, who had put a chunk of meat close to the fire,
which he had lit to warm himself. He discovered that the meat heated in this way was not only tasty but it was
also much easier to masticate /Chew. From that moment in unrecorded past, cooking has evolved to reach the
present level of sophistication.
Culinary History
Quantity cookery has existed for thousands of years, as long as there have been large groups of people to feed,
such as armies. But modern food service is said to have begun shortly after the middle of the eighteenth
century, when a Parisian named Boulanger began selling dishes that he referred to as “restoratives.” (The
word restaurant comes from the French verb restaurer, “to restore”) Before this time, food production in
France was controlled by guilds. Caterers, pastry makers, masters, and pork butchers held licenses to prepare
specific items. An innkeeper, in order to serve a meal to guests, had to get the various menu items from those
operations that were licensed to provide them. Guests had little or no choice and simply ate what was
available for that meal. Boulanger‘s establishment, on the other hand, provided choices for customers. In
challenging the rules of the guilds, Boulanger unwittingly changed the course of food service history.
The changes that had already begun received a great stimulus as a result of the French Revolution in 1793.
Before this time, the great chefs were employed in the houses of the French nobility. With the revolution and
the end of the monarchy, many chefs, suddenly out of work, opened restaurants in and around Paris to support
Georges-Auguste Escoffier (1847-1935) was the greatest chef of his time and is revered by chefs and
gourmets as the father of twentieth-century cookery. His two main contributions were the simplification of
classical cuisine and the classical menu and the reorganization of the kitchen. It is hard to believe that
Escoffier‘s elaborate multicourse banquets are a simplification of anything. But in the typical banquet menu
of the eighteenth century, each course consisted of as many as 20 separate dishes-or more-mostly a variety of
meats and poultry, all placed on the table at once. Guests helped themselves to the few dishes they could
Today‘s kitchens look much different from those of Escoffier‘s day, even though our basic cooking principles
are the same. Also, the dishes we eat have gradually changed due to the innovations and creativity of modern
chefs. The process of simplification and refinement, to which Carȇme and Escoffier made monumental
contributions, is still going on, adapting classical cooking to modern conditions and tastes.
Many developments in the twentieth century have led to changes in the food service industry.
Development of New Equipment
We take for granted such basic equipment as gas and electric ranges and ovens and electric refrigerators. But
even these essential tools did not exist until fairly recently. The easily controlled heat of modern cooking
equipment, as well as motorized food cutters, mixers, and other processing equipment, has greatly simplified
food production.
Research and technology continue to produce sophisticated tools for the kitchen. Some of these products,
such as tilting Skillets and steam-jacketed kettles, can do many jobs and are popular in many kitchens. Others
can perform specialized tasks rapidly and efficiently, but their usefulness depends on volume because they are
designed to do only a few jobs.
Food Production Operation 2
 Development and Availability of New Food Products
 Sanitary and Nutritional Awareness
 Modern Cooking Styles
Development of Catering Industry
Catering word is derived from “Cater” means to serve. It refers the service of food & beverage to the
customers & has deep relation with hotel & tourism industry.
Inns have served travelers since ancient time in 1200 B.C. during the era great Roman Empire was encourage
& large number of inns were built at strategic points on highways for the benefit of travelling troops &
civilians. There earlier inns were operated by the traders & landlords. This trades of inn keeping become more
popular with the invention coach & other modes of transportation. This was the period of proto tourism &
provided foods, shelter & the security to the traveler who basically travels from one place to another for trade,
pilgrimage purpose or seeking knowledge. The concept of cafeteria & coffee shot introduced in 17th century
in the London.
It was basically known for their cleanliness & good service. The concept was followed by American in the
large scale with the concept of catering the mass of people which went ahead in various catering houses &
hotel operation. The concept of modern catering industry was developed from inns & cafeteria. The earlier
catering establishment features traditional style of cooking. The influence of gastronomy science dealing with
the cooking of food was derived from the castle palace. In the house of wealthy family chefs were imported
from different part of the world to practice their art of cooking food.
Different Sectors of Catering Industry
Lodging: Lodging means accommodation for a certain period at a place to stay. Fancy hotels, hostels,
campgrounds, motels and other businesses that provide a place for people to sleep overnight are all in the
lodging industry.
Food and Beverages (F&B): F&B is one of the largest segments of the hospitality industry. It comprises of
establishments primary engaged in preparing meals, snacks, and beverages for immediate consumption on and
off the premises. When a restaurant is part of a hotel, services it renders can enhance the guest experience by
providing excellent food and first-class customer service.
Transportation: Transportation services like flights, trains, buses, cabs, ships, and so on are part of the
transportation system. It facilitates hospitality industry as guests can reach their desired designation, travel
around and go back.
Recreation: Any activity that people do for rest, relaxation, and enjoyment falls under recreation in
hospitality industry. It refreshes a person’s body and mind. It’s a very diverse business. In general, there are
three types of recreation businesses: entertainment, attractions, and events.
Travel Technology: Travel Technology also known as ―tourism technology‖ and ―hospitality automation‖ is
an application of Information Technology (IT) in the travel, tourism, and hospitality industry. Example: flight,
bus, train, and other mode of transports which have online booking and/or tracking systems. Online Travel
Agent (OTA) companies like Clear Trip, Make My Trip, Yatra etc are also an example of travel technology
Food Production Operation 3
French Terminology in Kitchen
These classic terms appear frequently in the writing and discussion of French foods.
 Aioli: A garlic flavored mayonnaise popular in Provence, in the south of France; aioli is traditionally
served as an accompaniment to vegetables and fish.
 Bain-marie: The French name for a water bath, a technique by which delicate foods such as custards are
baked at a gentle, controlled heat: the food is placed, in its container, into a larger pan into which boiling
water is poured. Then the pan is either placed in the oven, or on top of the stove. Bains-marie are also
used in restaurant kitchens to keep foods warm.
 Batonnet: Batonnet translates to “little stick”. The batonnet measures approximately ¼in/5 mm by ¼in/½
mm x 2½-3 inches or about 8cm. It is also the starting point for the small dice.
 Béchamel: A classic French white sauce made with milk, bound with a cooked flour and butter mixture
called a roux, flavored with bay leaves, nutmeg and sometimes onion.
 Beurre Blanc: A sauce made by reducing white wine with vinegar and shallots, then whisking in cold
butter so that the mixture emulsifies into a thick, buttery sauce. A beurre blanc is a classic mate to
poached fish.
 Beurre Manié: A mixture of flour and softened butter, which, when whisked into sauces, acts as a
 Beurre Noisette: Butter that has been cooked until it turns a golden brown color, often used to sauce fish.
 Bisque: A shellfish soup, traditionally bound with rice.
 Blanch: To place fruit or vegetables in boiling water so the skin can be removed more easily.
 Blanquette: A stew made from meat that has not been browned or fried. Usually refers to stews made of
lamb, chicken or veal.
 Bouillon: A broth or stock, usually a meat, some vegetables and a bouquet garni boiled in water.
 Bouquet Garni: Perhaps the most famous herb mix in French cooking, a bouquet garni is a combination
of bay leaf, thyme, parsley and sometimes leek used to flavor stocks, stews, braises and soups.
Traditionally, the herbs may be fresh or dried, and they are either tied up in a bundle with string (a leek
leaf makes a convenient wrapper), or tied in cheesecloth.
 Brunoise: Vegetables cut into very small diced pieces, based on a julienne cut, but just turned 90° and
 Canapé: An appetizer consisting of a small bread or biscuit base covered with a flavoured topping such
as Pâté.
 Charcuterie: Cured meats and patés.
 Chiffonade: A knife cut, by which herbs, lettuces and leafy greens are cut into very fine ribbons.
 Confit: A technique originally of preserving, by which meat is cooked in its own fat, then stored covered
in that fat. Duck confit is a traditional dish of southwestern France.
 Clarified butter: Butter from which the milk solids have been skimmed. The solids having been
Food Production Operation 4
removed, clarified butter can be heated to a higher temperature without burning, which makes it an
excellent medium for sautéing.
 Court Bouillon: A lightly flavored liquid used to cook fish and shellfish.
 Concassé: A French term for rough chopping ingredients — usually referring to tomatoes.
 Consommé: A richly flavoured, clear soup. To achieve this, egg whites are added and the soup is
simmered to allow the inpurities to be skimmed off.
 Crème Brulée: A rich egg custard, the top of which is sugared, and then heated so that the sugar melts to a
crisp, caramel crust.
 Croûte: Crust. Sometimes refers to a pastry crust, sometimes to toasted or fried bread.
 Croûtons: Small cubes of fried, or recooked bread used as a garnish in salads and soups.
 Deglaze (deglacer): A technique by which a liquid, usually wine, is added to a pan that has been used to
roast or sauté, in order to pick up the bits that have caramelized on the bottom of the pan. Deglazing is
often the first step in making a pan sauce.
 Demi-glace: A stock that has been reduced until very concentrated.
 Entrée: The term used to refer to something served before the main course but is used now to refer to the
actual main course.
 Entremet: A dessert or sweet – but does not include pastries.
 En Papillote: Food that is cooked in a parchment (or sometimes aluminum foil) wrapping.
 Fines Herbes: A classic mix of herbs — parsley, chives, tarragon and chervil — used in traditional
French cuisine.
 Foie Gras: The fattened liver of a specially raised duck or goose. Foie gras is often poached in a terrine
mold, or cut raw into slices and sautéed.
 Flambé: A technique by which alcohol is added to a dish and ignited, both for effect, and to burn off the
 Fond: Means a stock, in French.
 Fondue: From the French “fondre”, which means to melt. A dish of warm, melted cheese flavored with
wine, into which bits of bread are dipped. Fondue can also refer to a meat dish, in which pieces of meat
are cooked at the table in a pot of hot oil, or a dessert, in which pieces of fruit are dipped into warm,
melted chocolate.
 Ganache: A rich chocolate mixture made by combining chocolate and cream, used as a filling or icing.
 Glace: The French word for ice cream.
 Hors d’Oeuvre: The first course or appetiser.
 Jardiniere: Vegetables cut into batons — similar to julienne but thicker.
 Julienne: A knife technique by which food is cut into slender, matchstick pieces. A standard Julienne cut
is 4mm x 4mm x 5cm, or ⅛ x ⅛ x 2 inches. ⅛th of an inch is approx. 3mm, but these sizes do vary.
 Liaison: Ingredients used for thickening sauces, soups or other liquids.
Food Production Operation 5
 Macédoine: A salad of small pieces of mixed vegetables or fruit.
 Marinade: A liquid, often wine, flavored with herbs and aromatics, in which food is soaked in order to
impart flavor. The marinade may also be used as a cooking liquid.
 Mayonnaise: A cold, emulsified sauce made with oil, egg yolk and sometimes a little mustard; there are
innumerable variations and flavorings.
 Mirepoix: The name for a mix of vegetables, usually carrot, onion and celery, roughly chopped, and used
as a foundation for stocks, stews, soups, roasts, braises and sauce.
 Mise en place: Mise en place is translates as “putting in place”, as in getting all your preparation in place
– tasks like washing mussels, peeling and preparing vegetables or weighing out some of the ingredients in
 Mousse: A general word for any number of frothy, airy dishes, both sweet and savory, usually lightened
with whipped egg whites or cream.
 Omelet: An egg dish made by whisking eggs with seasonings, cooking in butter until firm, then rolling to
the classic omelet shape, with or without the addition of some filling.
 Paté: A dish of finely or coarsely minced fish or meat, seasoned, and baked with or without a crust, in a
 Paysanne: Vegetables cut into thin slices.
 Pâtisserie: A sweet or pastry, it also refers to a cake shop.
 Persillade: A mixture of chopped shallots, garlic and parsley, sometimes with the addition of
 Roux: A mixture of butter and flour, cooked together, and used as a thickener.
 Sauté: From the French verb “sauter”, to jump, a technique by which food is cooked quickly in hot fat.
 Velouté: A type of sauce made from butter, flour, cream and stock.
Food Production Operation 6
Cooking has neither been a discovery nor has it been an invention; it has been an evolution and food
has changed with times and societies. Food is one of the basic requirements of survival for humans
and in the past all wars have been fought for mere survival only. The accidental discovery of fire
changed the way we eat food today. We can only guess how the first cooked food evolved. Maybe
one day some piece of meat accidentally landed in fire and it tasted good; it could also be that a
whole animal fell into a fire and got char grilled accidentally to create the world‘s first barbecue.
After the colonies were built and the civilizations set in, societal structure started developing based
on the type of work being done by different people. Man started to demarcate food as well. Food
began to be classified as food for warriors, royal cuisine, and poor man‘s food. With the advent of
religions, religious barriers prevented eating of pork for Muslims and beef for Hindus.
Thus, we see how food has evolved from centuries, and we do not really know where the future will
lead us. But there is one thing for sure, for which chefs do not have to bother and that is, whatever
form food takes, it will still be chefs who will create the delicacies.
To understand a Professional kitchen let us talk about the four ‗P‘s.
To any customer coming to wine and dine in a restaurant, the paramount importance is food and
service. The food has to be hygienically prepared and presented in a modern way, so that the
restaurant stays ahead of its competitors. All the aspects of food need to be considered while
preparing and serving food in a professional kitchen. The taste, serving temperature (hot food served
hot and cold served cold), eye appeal, smell, and hygiene can never be ruled out in order to get the
customer delighted.
Standardization is one of the biggest challenges faced today in professional kitchens. Imagine being
in a restaurant where you do not know how the food will taste. To achieve the standard dish each and
every time, the processes have to be in place. The way the ingredient is processed to get the
maximum usable product, the standard equipment to be used each time to produce that dish, the
modulation of heat applied to the food, and many other processes form an integral part of food
A food service provider should be able to offer the most enjoyable dining experience to the
customers. At the end of the day, apart from customer‘s satisfaction, one has to operate a profitable
business for further growth and development of the organization. The chef behind the scene
contributes greatly to the financial viability of the business. He/she has to be in control of all aspects
of food operations such as purchasing, storing and portioning, and wastage control.
The first three ‗P‘s-process, product, and profit-cannot happen unless there is a humans touch
involved to give finishing touches to the food.
Food Production Operation 7
Kitchen essentially is quite a dangerous place to work. In many areas, accidents can occur, if the
basic safety rules of the kitchens are either not known to the staff or are ignored. The three main
causes of accidents in the kitchen are:
Distraction in the kitchen is usually caused by other personnel working in the kitchen. In the kitchen,
a chef works with tools and equipment, such as sharp knives and intricate machinery, which help
him/her to do his/her job efficiently and diligently; but if he/she loses concentration while working
with any of these, it can prove fatal. For example, while slicing onions with speed, if people talk to
someone over the counter it can prove dangerous.
One of the major enemies of kitchen personnel is ‗haste‘. A cook or a chef must complete the work
which has to be done, that very moment itself. The customer can wait for his/her food for a
considerable time only; but that does not mean that chefs should run around in the kitchen and try to
do things fast. Therefore, it is very important to set up the workstation in a way that everything is
within reach. The entire mise en place should be in done before the operation. The golden rule in the
kitchen is not to run, no matter how urgent the task is.
Failure to Observe Rules and Regulations
The last but not the least is the failure to observe safety rules and regulations. In a busy’ operational
kitchen, sophisticated machineries are provided to perform jobs effectively and all these machines
come with safety and handling manuals. Any deviation could result in fatal accidents. For example,
while extracting juice from a juice machine, one has to use the pusher to push the fruit in. Using bare
hands can cause loss of fingers or hand.
Sanitation and Safety
Rules of personal hygiene and sanitary food handling were not just invented to make your life
difficult. There are good reasons for all of them. It is very important to know about the causes of
food-borne diseases. This will make them easier to remember and to practice.
Introduction to Microbiology
Microbiology is the study of tiny, usually single-celled organisms that can be seen only with a
microscope. Although these organisms sometimes occur in clusters large enough to be seen with the
naked eye, they are not usually visible. Just because food looks good doesn‘t mean that it is safe.
Four kinds of microorganisms can contaminate food and cause illness: bacteria, viruses, parasites,
and fungi.
Bacteria are everywhere-in the air, in the water, in the ground, on our food, on our skin, inside our
bodies. Scientists have various ways of classifying and describing these bacteria.
1. Harmless bacteria: Most bacteria fall into this category. They are neither helpful nor
harmful to us.
2. Beneficial bacteria: These bacteria are helpful to us. For example, many live in the intestinal
tract, where they fight harmful bacteria, aid the digestion of food, and produce certain
nutrients. In food production, bacteria make possible the manufacture of many foods,
including cheese, yogurt.
Food Production Operation 8
3. Undesirable bacteria: These are the bacteria that are responsible for food spoilage. They
cause souring, putrefying, and decomposition) these bacteria may or may not cause disease,
but they offer a built-in safety factor: They announce their presence by means of sour odors,
sticky or slimy surfaces, and discoloration. As long as we use common sense and follow the
rule that says, “When in doubt, throw it out,” we are relatively safe from these bacteria.
4. Disease-causing bacteria or pathogens: These are the bacteria that cause most food-borne
illness, the bacteria that we are most concerned with. Pathogens do not necessarily leave
detectable odors or tastes in food. In other words, you can‘t tell if food is contaminated by
smelling, tasting, or looking at it. The only way to protect food against pathogenic bacteria is
by proper hygiene and sanitary food handling and storage techniques.
Bacteria multiply by splitting in half. Under ideal conditions for growth, they can double in number
every 15 to 30 minutes. This means that one single bacteria could multiply to a million in less than 6
Conditions for Growth
1. Food: Bacteria require some kind of food in order to grow. They like many of the foods we do.
Foods with sufficient amounts of proteins are best for bacterial growth. These include meats,
poultry, fish, dairy products, and eggs, as well as some grains and vegetables.
2. Moisture: Bacteria require water in order to absorb food. Dry foods will not support bacterial
growth. Foods with a very high salt or sugar content are also relatively safe, because these
ingredients make the bacteria unable to use the moisture present.
3. Temperature: Bacteria grow best at warm temperatures. Temperatures between 41°F – 140°F
(5°C- 60°C) will promote the growth of disease-causing bacteria. This temperature range is called
the Food Danger Zone.
4. Acidity or alkalinity: In general, disease-producing bacteria like a neutral environment, neither
too acidic nor too alkaline. The scale ranges from 0 (strongly acidic) to 14 (strongly alkaline). A pH
of 7 is neutral. Pure water has a pH of 7.
5. Air: Most bacteria require oxygen to grow. These are called aerobic. Some bacteria are anaerobic,
which means they can grow only if there is no air present, such as in metal cans. Botulism, one of
the most dangerous forms of food poisoning, is caused by anaerobic bacteria.
6. Time: When bacteria are introduced to a new environment, they need time to adjust to their
surroundings before they start growing. This time is called the lag phase.
Potentially hazardous foods:
Foods that provide a good environment for the growth of disease-causing microorganisms are called
potentially hazardous foods.
1. Any food that is derived from animals or any food containing animal products, including
meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, and dairy products.
2. Any food that is derived from plants and has been cooked, partially cooked, or otherwise
heat-treated. This category includes not only cooked vegetables but also such items as
cooked pasta, cooked rice, and tofu (soybean curd).
3. Raw seed sprouts.
Food Production Operation 9
Bacteria do not have feet. They can move from place to place in only one way: They must be
carried. Foods can become contaminated by any of the following means:
 Hands •Other foods
 Air •Insects
 Coughs and sneezes •Equipment and utensils
 Water •Rats and mice
Because we know how and why bacteria grow, we should now be able to keep them from growing.
Because we know how bacteria get from place to place, we should now know how to keep them
from getting into our food.
1. Keep bacteria from spreading. Don‘t let food touch anything that may contain diseaseproducing bacteria, and protect food from bacteria in the air.
2. Stop bacteria from growing. Take away the conditions that encourage bacteria to grow. The
most effective way to prevent bacterial growth is to keep foods below 41°F (5°C) or above [40°F
3. Kill bacteria. Most disease-causing bacteria are killed if they are subjected to a temperature of
170°F (77°C) for 30 seconds or higher temperatures for shorter times. This enables us to make food
safe by cooking and to sanitize dishes and equipment with heat. The terms sanitize means to kill
disease-causing bacteria. Certain chemicals also kill bacteria. These may be used for sanitizing
All foods are at risk of becoming contaminated. It‘s important to know how food can become
contaminated, so that you can protect against it.
Chemical contamination:
Chemical contamination refers to food that has been contaminated by some type of chemical
substance. Because chemicals can be very useful when cleaning in the kitchen, they can easily
contaminate food. Chemicals must be properly labeled, and stored separately to food stuff to
minimize the risk of contamination.
However, the food handler must always be aware of the presence of chemicals in food and take all
reasonable precautions to make sure that chemical contamination doesn‘t happen.
Microbiological contamination:
Microbiological contamination refers to food that‘s contaminated by substances produced by living
creatures – such as humans, rodents, pests or microorganisms. This includes bacterial contamination,
viral contamination or parasite contamination that‘s transferred through saliva, pest droppings, blood
or faecal matter. Bacterial contamination is thought to be the most common cause of food poisoning
worldwide, and the best way to protect against it occurring is by maintaining best food safety
Physical contamination:
Physical contamination refers to food that has been contaminated by a foreign object at some stage
of the production process. These objects have the ability to injure someone and can also potentially
carry harmful biological contaminants, which then cause illness. Examples: Finger nails, glass, hair,
wood, metal, etc.
Food Production Operation 10
Allergens Contamination:
Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body’s immune system. Allergic
reactions to food can sometimes cause serious illness and death. The foods that most often trigger
allergic reactions are: Milk, Eggs, Fish (e.g., bass, flounder, cod), Crustacean shellfish (e.g. crab,
lobster, shrimp), Tree nuts (e.g., almonds, walnuts, pecans), Peanuts, Wheat, Soybeans.
Personal hygiene can be defined as an act of maintaining cleanliness and grooming of the external
body. Maintaining good personal hygiene consists of bathing, washing your hands, brushing teeth
and sporting clean clothing. Additionally, it is also about making safe and hygienic decisions when
you are around others.
As a food handler, one must ensure that the food provided to the customer is free of all
contaminants. Food handlers should remember that customers place great trust in them, and that
carelessness on their part could make customers ill, or at times even lead to death.
Our normal body temperature, which is around 37°C, is favorable for bacteria to dwell and grow.
This is probably the source of most cases of food poisoning. Personal hygiene should be important to
everyone but to a food handler, it is of paramount importance.
The food handler has a moral and legal responsibility of having good standards of personal hygiene.
The bacteria on the human body are usually found on hands, ears, nose, mouth, throat, hair, and
groin. One must wash hands after touching these areas, otherwise the pathogen will enter into the
food and then with favorable conditions the bacteria will grow and multiply and will cause the risk
of contamination.
Hygiene is the science that deals with the sanitation and disinfection. For successful food operation,
hygiene and food safety form the backbone of a successful business.
The first step in preventing food-borne disease is good personal hygiene. Even when we are healthy,
we have bacteria all over our skin and in our nose and mouth. Some of these bacteria, if given the
chance to grow in food, will make people ill.
1. Do not work with food if you have any communicable disease or infection.
2. Bath or shower daily.
3. Wear clean uniforms and aprons.
4. Keep hair neat and clean. Always wear a hat or hairnet.
5. Keep mustaches and beards trimmed and clean. Better yet, be clean-shaven
6. Wash hands and exposed parts of arms before work and as often as necessary including:
 After eating, drinking, or smoking.
 After using the toilet.
 After touching or handling anything that may be contaminated with bacteria.
7. Cover coughs and sneezes, and then wash hands.
8. Keep your hands away from your face, eyes, hair, and arms.
9. Keep fingernails clean and short. Do not wear nail polish.
10. Do not smoke or chew gum while on duty.
11. Cover cuts or sores with clean bandages.
12. Do not sit on worktables.
Food Production Operation 11
Dry food storage pertains to those foods not likely to support bacterial growth in their normal state.
These foods include:
Flour Ready-prepared cereals
Sugar and salt Breads and crackers
Cereals, rice, and other grains Oils and shortenings
Dried beans and peas canned and bottled foods (unopened)
 Store dry foods in a cool, dry place, off the floor, away from the wall, and not under a sewer line.
 Keep all containers tightly closed to protect from insects, rodents, and dust.
Food Storage Temperatures
 Raw vegetables and fruits 4°-7°C
 Eggs 3
– 4°C
 Milk and cream 2°-4°C
 Poultry and meat 0°-2
 Fish and seafood -1
Note: Potatoes, onions are best held at cool temperatures (50°-65°F or 10°-18°C).
1. Keep frozen foods at O°F (-l 8°C) or lower.
2. Keep all frozen foods tightly wrapped or packaged to prevent freezer burn.
3. Label and date all items.
4. Thaw frozen foods properly.
o In refrigerator.
o Under cold running water.
o In a microwave oven, if the item is to be cooked or served immediately.
1. Keep all perishable foods properly refrigerated.
2. Do not overcrowd refrigerators. Leave space between items so that cold air can circulate.
3. Keep refrigerator doors shut except when removing or putting in foods.
4. Keep shelves and interiors of refrigerators clean.
5. Store raw and cooked items separately if possible.
6. If raw and cooked foods must be kept in the same refrigerator, keep cooked foods above raw
foods. If cooked foods are kept below raw foods, they can become contaminated by drips and
7. Keep refrigerated foods wrapped or covered and in sanitary containers.
8. Do not let any unsanitary surface, such as the bottoms of other containers, touch any food.
9. Chill foods as quickly as possible over ice or in a cold-water bath before placing in
10. When holding foods in cold bain-marie or refrigerated table for service, do not heap the food
above the level of the container. The food above this level will not stay cold enough.
1. To keep foods hot for service, use steam tables or other equipment that will keep all parts of
all foods above 140°F (60°C) at all times.
2. Keep foods covered.
3. Bring foods to holding temperature as quickly as possible by using ovens, steamers, rangetop
pots and pans, or other cooking equipment.
4. Do not let ready-to-eat foods come in contact with any contaminated surface.
Food Production Operation 12
How to Avoid Contamination in Kitchen?
1. Start with clean, wholesome foods whenever applicable, buy government-inspected meats,
poultry, fish, dairy, and egg products.
2. Handle foods as little as possible. Use tongs, spatulas, or other utensils instead of hands.
3. Use clean, sanitized equipment and worktables.
4. Clean and sanitize cutting surfaces and equipment after handling raw poultry, meat, fish, or
eggs and before working on another food.
5. Clean as you go. Don‘t wait until the end of the workday.
6. Wash raw fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
7. When bringing foods out of refrigeration, do not bring out more than you can process in 1
8. Keep foods covered unless in immediate use.
9. Do not let any perishable foods remain in the Food Danger Zone for more than 1 hour.
10. Don‘t mix leftovers with freshly prepared foods.
11. Do not stack the pans.
12. Do not let any unsanitary surface, such as the bottoms of other containers, touch any food.
13. Chill foods as quickly as possible over ice or in a cold-water bath before placing in
14. Keep all perishable foods properly refrigerated.
15. Wash hands and exposed parts of arms before entering into the kitchen.
16. Cover coughs and sneezes, then wash hands.
17. Keep your hands away from your face, eyes, hair, and arms.
18. Keep fingernails clean and short. Do not wear nail polish.
19. Store raw and cooked items separately if possible.
20. Do not work with food if you have any communicable disease or infection.
Rats, mice, fly, and cockroaches can spread disease by contaminating food and food contact
surfaces. Any sign of rodent or insect infestation is usually considered a serious violation of health
codes. There are four basic methods of pest control. We start with the most important and most
1. Block all possible rodent entrances, including structural defects in the building.
2. Put screens on all window and doors.
3. Make sure all doors are self- closing, install fly fans or air curtains.
4. Inspect incoming supplies for signs of insect infestation.
1. Repair holes in walls and floors, and any structural defects.
2. Eliminate narrow spaces between and behind equipment, counters, or other fixtures, etc.
3. Store food and supplies off the floor.
4. Seal all cracks and crevices. Repair loose tiles, wall coverings, and so on.
5. Remove all fly-breeding places inside and out: garbage, manure, general filth.
1. Keep all foods tightly covered or wrapped.
2. Keep garbage containers tightly covered, and use metal (rat proof) garbage cans.
3. Clean up all spilled food.
4. General sanitation: Keep floors, walls, and equipment clean.
Food Production Operation 13
Hire a qualified, licensed exterminator who knows how to use poisons, insecticides, and traps. Most
poisons should not be used in a food production operation, so it‘s better not to do the job yourself.
Kitchen work is usually considered a relatively safe occupation at least in comparison with many
industrial jobs. Nevertheless, the kitchen has many hazards. Minor injuries from cuts and burns are
very common, and more serious injuries are all too possible.
The Safe Workplace
Most of this section is concerned with ways that workers can prevent certain kinds of accidents, such
as cuts, burns, and falls. However, it is much easier to develop and practice habits that prevent
accidents if safety is built into the workplace.
The management of a food service operation must see to it that the structure and equipment have
necessary safety features.
1. Structure, equipment, and electric wiring in good repair.
2. Adequate lighting on work surfaces and in corridors.
3. Nonslip floors.
4. Clearly marked exits.
5. Equipment supplied with necessary safety devices.
6. Heat-activated fire extinguishers over cooking equipment, especially deep fryers.
7. Conveniently located emergency equipment, such as fire extinguishers, fire blankets, and
first-aid kits.
8. Clearly posted emergency telephone numbers.
9. Smooth traffic patterns to avoid collisions between workers.
Preventing Cuts
1. Keep knives sharp. A sharp knife is safer than a dull one because it requires less pressure and
is less likely to slip.
2. Use a cutting board. Do not cut against a metal surface. Place a damp towel under the board
to keep it from slipping.
3. Pay attention to your work when using a knife or cutting equipment. Cut away from yourself
and other workers.
4. Use knives only for cutting, not for such jobs as opening bottles.
5. Don‘t try to catch a falling knife. Step back and let it fall.
6. Don‘t put knives in a sink, under water, or any place where they can‘t be seen.
7. Clean knives carefully, with the sharp edge away from you.
8. Store knives in a safe place, such as in a rack, when not in use.
9. Carry knives properly. Hold the knife beside you, point down, with the sharp edge back and
away from you. Don‘t swing your arm.
10. Keep breakable items, such as dishes and glassware, out of the food production area.
11. Don‘t put breakable items in the pot sink.
12. Sweep up; don‘t pick up, broken glass.
13. Discard chipped or cracked dishes and glasses.
14. Use special containers for broken dishes and glasses. Don‘t throw them in with other
15. If there is broken glass in the sink, drain the sink before trying to take out the glass.
16. Remove all nails and staples when opening crates and cartons, and dispose of them.
Food Production Operation 14
Preventing Burns
1. Always assume a pot handle is hot. Don‘t just grab it with your bare hand.
2. Use dry pads or towels to handle hot pans. Wet ones will create steam, which can burn you.
3. Keep pan handles out of the aisle so people won‘t bump into them. Also, keep handles away
from open flames of gas burners.
4. Don‘t fill pans so full that they are likely to spill hot foods.
5. Get help when moving heavy containers of hot food.
6. Open lids away from you to let steam escape safely.
7. Use care when opening compartment steamers.
8. Make sure gas is well vented before trying to light ovens or pilot lights. Strike matches
before turning on the gas. Also, strike matches away from yourself.
9. Wear long sleeves and a double breasted jacket to protect yourself from spilled or spattered
hot foods or fat. Also, wear sturdy leather shoes with closed toes.
10. Dry foods before putting them in frying fat or hot fat may splatter on you.
11. When placing foods in hot fat, let them fall away from you so that fat will not splash on you.
12. Keep liquids away from the deep fryer. If a liquid were spilled into the fryer, the suddenly
created steam could spray hot fat on anyone nearby.
13. Always warn people when you are walking behind them with hot pans or when you are
walking behind someone who is working with hot items.
14. Warn service people about hot plates.
Preventing Falls
1. Clean up spills immediately.
2. Throw salt on a slippery spot to make it less slippery while a mop is being fetched.
3. Don‘t carry objects too big to see over.
4. Walk, don‘t run.
5. Use a safe ladder, not chairs or piles of boxes, to reach high shelves or to clean high
Preventing Fires
1. Know where fire extinguishers are located and how to use them.
2. Use the right kind of fire extinguisher. There are three classes of fires, and fire extinguishers
should be labeled according to the kind of fire for which they can be used.
 Class A fires: wood, paper, cloth, ordinary combustibles.
 Class B fires: burning liquids, such as grease, oil, gasoline, solvents.
 Class C fires: switches, motors, electrical equipment, and so forth.
NOTE: (Never use water on a Class A fire extinguisher on a grease fire or electrical
fire. You will only spread the fire.)
3. Keep a supply of salt or baking soda handy to put out fires on range tops.
4. Keep hoods and other equipment free from grease buildup.
5. Don‘t leave hot fat unattended on the range.
6. Smoke only in designated areas. Do not leave burning cigarettes unattended.
7. If a fire alarm sounds and if you have time, turn off all gas and electric appliances before leaving
the building.
8. Keep fire doors closed.
9. Keep exits free from obstacles.
Food Production Operation 15
Preventing Injuries from Machine and Equipment
1. Do not use any equipment unless you understand its operation.
2. Use all guards and safety devices on equipment. Set slicing machines at zero (blade closed)
when not in use.
3. Don‘t touch or remove food from any kind of equipment while it is running, not even with a
spoon or spatula.
4. Unplug electric equipment before disassembling or cleaning.
5. Make sure the switch is off before plugging in equipment.
6. Do not touch or handle electric equipment, including switches, if your hands are wet or if you
are standing in water
7. Wear properly fitting clothing and tuck in apron strings to avoid getting them caught in
8. Use equipment only for the purpose intended.
9. Stack pots and other equipment properly on pot racks so that they are stable and not likely to
Most people take the chefs‘ uniform for granted, but there are good reasons for each piece of
Chef’s jacket: The typical chef’s jacket is made of heavy white cotton. This fabric is important
because it acts as insulation against the intense heat from stoves and ovens. The cloth is thick enough
to prevent the chef from being scalded by hot liquids or spattering hot oil and thermal shocks as the
chefs constantly shuttles between the cold storage areas and the hot kitchen areas. Since there are
two rows of buttons, the chef can re-button the double-breasted jacket to change sides whenever a
side gets soiled during the course of work during a shift.
Chef’s trouser: Chefs wear either black pants or black and white checked pants.
Scarf/ neckerchief: Chefs wear white neckerchiefs, knotted in the front. These were originally
designed to absorb perspiration. Nowadays, chefs wear the neckerchiefs to keep the tradition and
finish the look of their uniforms.
Apron: Usually made of thick cotton fabric and is worn around the waist with the help of a long
string reaching below the knees to protect the chefs from any spilling hot liquids. The string of the
apron helps to hold the chefs kitchen towel in place.
Kitchen towel/ duster: They help in holding and pick up hot pots and pans and also to wipe hands
in order to keep them dry.
Chef’s hat: The most interesting part of the uniform is the tall white hat; called a “toque.” Along
with the other conveniences disposable paper hats were invented to look like cloth so that they could
be thrown away when they are soiled.
Shoes: The shoes should be black and well-polished. To prevent slipping the sole should be made of
rubber. Black socks a standard in our kitchens (preferably the sweat absorbing cotton variety).
Food Production Operation 16
The importance of knives to a chef cannot be overstated. It is the most important piece of equipment
in the kitchen. Knives come in various shapes and sizes and each is meant for a specific use though
some knives can be used as multi-purpose knives. Let us now familiarize ourselves with different
parts of a knife.
Blade: The blade is usually made up of a metal compound called high carbon stainless steel.
Tip/point: The tip of the knife is the pointed edge where the knife blade ends.
Spine: The spine of the knife is the topmost, thick edge of the knife, which gives strength to the
Bolsters: In some knives there is a collar known as a bolster, at the point where the blade meets the
handle. It reinforces the structure of a knife.
Cutting Edge: The cutting edge is the most important part of the knife. It should always be kept
honed and sharpened.
Handle: The handle of a knife should be easy to grip and should be non-reactive to most cleaning
agents. The different materials used to make handles are Wood, plastic, plastic fibre, or even metal.
Tang: The tang is the continuation of the blade and extends into a knife‘s handle.
Rivets: These are metal fasteners that hold the handle and the tang together.
Chef’s knife: Also known as French knife, it is usually an extension of a chef‘s hand. This is so
because it is the most common knife used for various operational jobs in the kitchen such as
chopping, slicing, etc. The length of the blade is usually 8 to 12 inches.
Paring knife: Also known as fruit knife, it is usually used for small jobs such as paring of apples,
taking wedges of lemon, hulling strawberries, etc. The blade is usually 3 to 4 inches long.
Tourne knife: It is also known as bird‘s beak knife, which is same size as that of a paring knife,
only difference is that the ‘cutting blade is slightly curved to facilitate the cutting of a vegetable into
a barrel shape.
Boning knife: Boning knife has a thinner and shorter blade than a chef‘s knife and IS used to cut
meat away from the bone. The heel of the knife is slightly curved so that the knife can rest on the
bone whilst deboning.
Filleting knife: Similar to boning knife but has a flexible blade for the ease of filleting a fish.
Bread knife: A long serrated knife used to slice bread or sponge cakes. The blade is usually 12 to
15 inches long.
Food Production Operation 17
Carving knife: Thin sharp blade usually used for carving cooked meats or big joints of roasts on the
Cleaver: It is generally used in the Chinese kitchen for cutting and chopping. It has a large wide
blade and is heavier than a chef‘s knife.
Palette knife: It is not a knife for cutting purposes; but is a flexible spatula with a rounded tip and is
widely used in confectionery to decorate cakes.
Types of sharpening tools for knives
Sharpening stone: It is essential for the proper maintenance of a knife that it is sharpened by
passing its edge over the stone at the correct angle. While sharpening, start with the coarse surface
and then move to the finer one. Most stones are moistened with water or oil but once moistened with
oil then the process has to be continued every time.
Steel or sharpening rod: The steel should be used immediately after sharpening a knife, it helps in
alignment of the sharp edge of the knife.
Commercial sharpeners: These are available in various shapes’ and sizes, some are manual and
some are machine operated. The machine has small rollers made out of the same material as the
sharpening steel. There are grooves through which the knife can be slid in and out for sharpening.
Food Production Operation 18
What is HACCP?
HACCP Stands for Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. HACCP is an internationally
recognized system for reducing the risk of safety hazards in food.
A HACCP System requires that potential hazards are identified and controlled at specific points in
the process. This includes biological, chemical or physical hazards. Any company involved in the
manufacturing, processing or handling of food products can use HACCP to minimize or eliminate
food safety hazards in their product.
HACCP is a systematic approach to the identification, evaluation, and control of food safety hazards
based on the following seven principles:
Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis.
Principle 2: Determine the critical control points (CCPs).
Principle 3: Establish critical limits.
Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures.
Principle 5: Establish corrective actions.
Principle 6: Establish verification procedures.
Principle 7: Establish record-keeping and documentation procedures.
Red Chopping Board Red raw meat
Yellow Chopping Board Raw Poultry
Brown Chopping Board Cooked Meat
Blue Chopping Board Seafood (Fish & Shellfish)
Green Chopping Board Fruits and Vegetables
White Chopping Board Bread and Dairy Product
Ergonomics is the process of designing or arranging workplaces, products and systems so that they
fit the people who use them. Ergonomics means fitting the workplace to the worker by modifying or
redesigning the job, workstation, tool, or environment. By identifying ergonomic hazards that can
result in an injury or illness, and correcting these hazards, employees can be provided a healthier
Most back injuries that occur on the job are a result of poor lifting technique. Lifting and carrying
objects should be designed out of jobs whenever possible. When lifting cannot be avoided,
employees should get assistance with heavy and awkward object. The risk of injury can be reduced
by staying in good physical shape, planning the lift and removing all obstacles, getting a good grip,
getting load close to the body and lifting with the legs. Avoid twisting the back and lifting a load
above shoulder height. Lower the load carefully, again bending the knees and keeping the back
straight. Some of the factors evaluated in an ergonomic analysis are:
• Repetitiveness of a task
• Posture and movement of the limbs and whole body as a task is performed
• Physical strength required for a task
• Design and use of tools
• Design and layout of the work area or equipment
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Kitchen Organization
Group of people working together in kitchen to prepare food materials for customer service in a
hygienic manner is known as kitchen organization. Organization only stands for group of people do
their job together to achieve the goal. So, kitchen organization also stands as group of people do
their job together to achieve the goal of hotel that is….
 Make profit to hotel through guest‘s satisfaction
 Cost control
 Create a good will of the hotel Kitchen organization may vary from one establishment to
another according to particular requirements, volume of trade, range and type of menu and
style of service.
Kitchen Brigade
Late in the 19th century, following a French army career, gifted chef Georges- Auguste Escoffier
developed the modern brigade system in London’s Savoy Hotel. For maximum efficiency, he
organized the kitchen into a strict hierarchy of authority, responsibility, and function. In the brigade,
widely adopted by fine-dining establishments, the general is the executive chef, or chef de cuisine,
assisted by a sous chef. Subordinate are the chefs de partie, each in charge of a production station
and assisted by demi-chefs and commis.
The kitchen brigade is working team of professionally trained cooks headed by an Executive Chef.
The various ranks and positions within the kitchen brigades are based on the principles of a
hierarchical setup. The functions of the professional‘s ranks may differ from establishment to
establishment. It is therefore rather difficult to define the duties according to the ranks and positions.
The ranks are given by merit based on skill, knowledge, reliability, leadership, ability, experience,
good conduct, initiative, academic education etc.
King of Chefs
George- Auguste Escoffier was born on the 28th October 1846, in Villeneuve, a
village, in the neighborhood of Nice, in the Provence region of France. He died on
February 12, 1935,
Modern kitchen organizations aim at orienting staff in all the areas of the kitchen, so that a multiskilled workforce is created. A business organization is defined as an arrangement of people in jobs
to accomplish the goals of the operation. The organizational structure of the kitchen reflects the
needs of the operation, the job functions, and the various goals. The jobs and duties of staff members
also vary from kitchen to kitchen, and so do the titles attached to the jobs. But certain positions and
titles do occur throughout the industry.
Here are some of the most common positions with a general definition for each and a place in the
typical kitchen hierarchy:
Food Production Operation 20
Chef De Cuisines (Executive Chefs or Head Chefs):
This position carries overall responsibility for all aspects of production, for the quality of the
products served, for hiring and managing the kitchen staff, for controlling costs and meeting
budgets, and for coordinating with departments not directly involved in food production.
Duties also include making new menus, purchasing, costing, and scheduling of employees. They are
also responsible for kitchen plant and machinery.
Sous Chefs (Under the Chefs):
They are the principal assistants to the head chefs and aid the chefs in general administration and in
particular, supervising food production, and overseeing its service. They are the acting head chefs in
the absence of the head chefs.
Chef De Parties (Section Chefs):
All chef de parties are supervisors in charge of a clearly defined set of activities within the kitchen.
They are the station heads and must be skilled to cook every dish made by their stations. They
should also have a certain degree of administrative skills. They should be able to plan and carry out
production schedules for the section.
Demi Chef De Parties:
They are also in a supervisory capacity. They take charge in the absence of the chef de parties. They
assist the chef de parties.
Commis:There are both commis I; and commis II; the I being seniors. They are the assistants to the
chef de partie. However, in most hotels now, the commis I and II have been classified as commis
Apprentices: These are the trainees who help out in day-to-day operations.
Chef de Cuisine (Exécutive Chef) The executive chef carries the full responsibilities of the kitchen
and he must be both cook and administrator. He needs to be capable of quick service and mainly
knows all the training skills. He must have a straight sense of economy and efficiency.
His main Jobs and Responsibilities include
•Takes charges of whole the kitchen administration.
•Plan the kitchen elegantly and economically
•Recruits the kitchen staff in coordination with the management
•Sees to the welfare of the kitchen staff
•Supervise and trains his staffs
•Plan the new menus, standardizes recipes and coordinates in fixing their prices.
•Controls the quality, quantity and the cost of the food.
•Checks spoilage and wastages (wastage control)
•Lays down the standard and specifications of ingredients
•Indemnifies (protects) his staffs against any unfair evils
•Coordinates with other department of the hotel
•Informs the staff of the management policies
•Attends F & B meetings for new settings and policies
Food Production Operation 21
Sous Chef: Sous chef is referred as second cook and he is the principle assistant of Executive Chef
mainly responsible for the efficient day-to-day functioning of the kitchen. The Sous Chef supervises
the practical kitchen activities.
Main Duties & Responsibilities of Sous Chef include
•Represents the Executive Chef in his absence
•Responsible for the scheduling of staff under him.
•Responsible for proper staff rotation and records of absenteeism.
•Acts as a liaison between the Executive Chef and the kitchen staff.
•Ensures smooth flow of dishes from the kitchen.
•Maintains coordination between different sections of the kitchen.
•Reports to the Executive Chef
•Attends meetings in absence of Executive Chef
•Represents the Executive Sous Chef in his absence
•Supervise the work of the kitchen
•Ensures proper presentation and specification of the dishes
•Briefing and scheduling of staffs under him
•Complain handling and criticism
Chef de Partie:For the different section in the kitchen, there is a Chef de Partie such as Chef de
Saucier (sauce cook), Chef de Rottiseur (roast cook) etc. Each Chef de Partie is assisted according to
the production load by one or more commies i.e. commie I, commie II & commie III and also some
trainees or apprentice. He is responsible for the smooth functioning of day-to-day work within his
Main Duties & Responsibilities of Chef de Partie include
 Reports to the Executive chef and sous chefs.
 Responsible for food production and waste control in his/ her area.
 Responsible for duty rota‘s of the staffs under him.
 Trains and supervises staff in the section
 Assures conformance of all food production to the standards and specifications desires by the
 Controls usage, eliminates wastage with a view to minimize food cost.
 Maintains a high standard of cleanliness and hygienic in his section
Areas of Specialization
• Chef Garde-manger (pantry supervisor; literally “food keeper”) is responsible for
preparation of cold hors d’oeuvres, prepares salads, organizes large buffet displays, and
prepares charcuterie items.
• Sauciers: They are responsible for all sauces and sauce-related dishes.
• Boucher (Butchery Chef): butcher‘s meats, poultry, and sometimes fish; may also be in
charge of breading meat and fish items.
Food Production Operation 22
• Chef Entremetier (entrée preparer): prepares soups and other dishes including vegetable
dishes and egg dishes, but not involving meat or fish. The entremetiers are concerned with
the preparation of the following:
i. All vegetable dishes,
ii. All potato dishes,
iii. All egg dishes,
iv. All farinaceous dishes.
• Chef Potager (Soup Chef): in larger kitchens, reports to the Chef entremetier and prepares
the soups. They are responsible for preparing soups and stocks, which may include cream
soups, consommes, bisques, broths, national soups, essences, etc.
• Chef Legumier (Vegetable Chef): in larger kitchen, also reports to the Chef entremetier and
prepares the vegetable and farinaceous dishes.
• Chef Pâtissier (Pastry Chef): prepares desserts and other meal-end sweets, and for locations
without a Chef boulanger, also prepares breads and other baked items; may also prepare
pasta for the restaurant.
• Chef Boulanger (Bakery Chef): in large kitchen prepares bakery items. They are the bakers
who work under the pastry chefs and are responsible for all baked products such as bread,
breakfast rolls, etc.
• Confiseur: in larger hotel/restaurants, prepares candies and petits fours instead of
the pâtissier.
• Glacier: in larger hotel/restaurants, prepares ice-cream, frozen and cold desserts instead of
the pâtissier.
• Chef Rôtisseur (Roast Chef): They are responsible for braised meats, roasted meats, and
meat dishes. Their section is also responsible for deep-frying of foods.
• Chef Grillardin (Grill Chef): in larger kitchens, prepares grilled foods instead of
the rôtisseur.
• Chef Friturier (Fry Chef): in larger kitchens, prepares fried foods instead of the rôtisseur.
• Chef Poissonnier (Fish Chef): prepares fish and seafood dishes.
• Chef Tournant (Reliever Spare hand): They are the reliever chefs who take charge in the
absence of the section chefs. They were usually multi-skilled cooks, who would fit into any
job in case of emergencies.
• Chef Communard (Staff Chef): prepares the meal served to the hotel/restaurant staff.
• Aboyeur (Announcer): takes orders from the dining room and distributes them to the various
stations; may also be performed by the chef de partie.
• Apprentices: These are the trainees who help out in day to day operation.
Food Production Operation 23
Organization Chart of kitchen department of a Large- Size Hotel
Food Production Operation 24
Organizational Chart of modern kitchen Department of a large size hotel
Food Production Operation 25
Organizational Chart of kitchen department
(Classical version)
Organizational Chart of Medium Size Hotel
Food Production Operation 26
Kitchen is a well designed area in which food is prepared and cooked for customers‘ service. The
word kitchen comes from the French word ‗Cuisine‘ means art of cooking or food preparation in the
kitchen. The varieties of meals that are prepared and cooked by the skilled and semi-skilled culinary
crafts are the key person, and the food is served in specific areas of the catering establishment. The
purpose of the kitchen organization is to produce the right quantity and quality of the food in its best
standard for required number of people by the most effective use of staff, equipment and materials.
The requirement of the kitchen has to be clearly identified with regard to the type of food that is to
be prepared, cooked and served. The space and types of equipment‘s available most be fully
justified. At the same time, the organization of the kitchen personal must also be well-planned.
The kitchens are known by different names as per their functions and style of management. Types of
kitchen depend on upon following points.
1. Main Kitchen: The main kitchen is probably located in the central part of the hotel where the
overall sequence of food receiving, storing, preparing, cooking, serving and clearing areas
properly designed and managed. Technically, it is also known as central kitchen having many
sections. Hence, it may occupy a large space. This kitchen provides a wide range of food
varieties e.g. Indian, Continental, Oriental, Mexican, Italian, etc. through its respective section
with the help of skilled/ semi-skilled culinary crafts persons called chef-de-parties and commie
cooks. The main kitchen is usually located adjacent to room service, service bar, store, pantry/
stillroom, bakery, butchery, etc for efficient work flow.
2. Satellite Kitchen: Satellite kitchen is constructed and establishment to cater to a particular outlet
where the main kitchen cannot cater due to its location disadvantage. Largely, this kitchen can
organize most of the preparation work in its own kitchen. However, it may depend on upon the
main kitchen for various other things such as sauce, stocks, gravies, pasta, etc. This kitchen
becomes a must for specialty restaurants such as Indian, Continental, Chinese, Mexican, etc.
which are located away from the main kitchen.
3. Fast Food Kitchen: Fast food kitchen is influenced by American Catering Technology, i.e.,
‗Fast Food to Lead a Fast Life‘. Fast food was developed from original ‗Fish & Chips‘ concept at
that time. But modern catering mostly provides dry and light food. It is independently established
to meet the pace of busy life. It is located at the public area (lobby level) of a hotel, or out of the
hotel where either food is taken away or consumed at the fast food lounge area. Most of the fast
food establishment may be found in retail and leisure areas and in roadside service complexes,
airport lounge, railway stations, etc. It provides varieties of dry and light meals like a burger,
sandwich, fish & chips, pizza, snacks, grilled meat/fish/shellfish, cold and hot beverages, etc.
4. Display Kitchen: In this kitchen, food is prepared and cooked in full open view of the
customers, which appeals to the eyes, palate and dining experience of the consumers. At the
same time, the sizzle and aroma of food item add to the pleasure of eating e.g. Grill Room. It is
Food Production Operation 27
also termed as theatre kitchen. The hygiene, sanitation and décor of the kitchen, as well as the
skill and showmanship of the staff, in particular, may determine the sale of such kitchens. This
kitchen also seeks the support of the main kitchen for various items.
Mainly the kitchen space is divided into five major areas. They are:
1. Storage area: The area used to store particular goods, either dry or moist, in large quantity
for quick and smooth operation. Equipment located in this area includes the cool room, deep
freezer, cold store and dry store.
2. Food preparation area: Equipment should be positioned in those preparation or cooking
areas where it is used frequently.
3. Cooking area: This area is the actual cooking, where cooking gas and equipment are fixed,
such as deep fat fryer, hot plate, stockpots pressure steamers etc.
4. Cleaning and washing area: Dishes and glasses are washed in an area conveniently close to
the serving sections. Pots and pans washed in separate areas or in areas near their use,
depending on the size of the kitchen.
5. Serving area: Equipment‘s used to hold food hot or cold services are positioned near the
dining room entrance. Beverage and toast making facilities are located near the service
section for quick and easy access by waiters.
Kitchen Layout:
It will be right to say that kitchen is the heart of a hotel; just as the heart pumps out the blood to all
the parts of the body, the kitchen supplies food to all the section of the hotel. Kitchen is a busy place
and cross-traffic can really hamper the operations. There are certain factors that one needs to keep in
mind while planning a kitchen. This is usually done by ‗facility planning department‘, which
carefully plans the layout of the kitchens.
Planning a kitchen entails much more than just placement of equipment in its place. A well-planned
operation will always follow a systematic procedure.
When we talk of design of a kitchen, it would generally mean the overall planning of the space with
regards to size and shape of the operations. Layout would mean the detailed arrangement of the floor
of the kitchen and allocation of places for the kitchen equipment to be placed where the specific
tasks would be carried out.
A well-planned layout is not only important for the smooth workflow in the kitchen but it also adds
to the profitability of the entire operation. Smooth workflow will ensure timely pick up of food for a
busy meal period thus creating happy guest and good reputation.
Food Production Operation 28
General Principle Behind Layout of the Kitchen Areas
Receiving Area:
Receiving area is a place where the goods are received into the hotel. This place is not only used to
receive raw food commodities, but also to offload all the supplies of the hotel. This area also restricts
the entry of unauthorized personnel into the hotel and is located near the rear entry of the hotel also
known as staff entrance.
Various jobs are carried out in the receiving area and this is one place in the hotel where all the
supplies are received. From food commodities to engineering supplies, everything lands up at the
receiving dock, where the items are checked as per specifications given to the supplier and recorded
in various formats.
Food Storage:
Once the food is received, it becomes important to store it or hold it before it is issued to the
production areas. These are usually stored at a place known as storeroom. Storeroom is the most
valuable and important part of a food service organization. It is designed with care so that it is able
to store the food hygienically to process it later.
There are certain considerations to be kept in mind while designing store rooms.
Some of them are as follows:
1. It should be under close supervision of security as it stores expensive commodities.
2. It should be near to the receiving area and the user department.
3. It should have walk-in refrigerator and fire extinguishers in the same area.
4. FIFO‘ system should be followed in the department.
5. The shelves should be 3 inches away from wall and 6 inches above the ground.
6. It should have different shelves for the ingredients which have code numbers and labels.
7. It should be well ventilated & temperature controlled so that the commodities are stored safely.
8. It should have enough space for the trolleys to move around.
Food Production Operation 29
Basic Layout of Main Kitchen:
Main kitchen can be rightly called the nerve centre of all the kitchens. The kitchen associated with
an individual restaurant is known as ‗satellite kitchen‘ and the main kitchen comprises butchery,
cold kitchen also known as ‗garde manger‘, coffee shop kitchen, bakery, chef ‗s office, production
kitchen, etc.
Layout of the
A commissary kitchen is the backbone of the kitchen as most of the pre-preparation of food is done
here. This kitchen does the basic mise en place or large-scale operations, such as banqueting, and so
it is very important to have a well-spaced work area as there would be heavy movement of staff.
Layout of Butchery:
Butchery is the biggest money holding centre of the hotel operations. This sections stores and
processes most expensive meat which are both local and imported.
Hence, a well-planned butchery operation is a must for a profitable food business. Butchery, in
various hotels are part of food stores; as they process all the meats and store them for usage in the
kitchen against food requisitions. Separate walk-ins and separate work stations are provided for
separate meats as there could be chances of food contamination.
Layout of Garde Manger:
Garde in French means ‗to keep‘ and manger means ‗to eat‘, so garde manger literally means ‗kept
cold to be eaten‘. This kitchen is called cold kitchen as foods such as sandwiches, salads, juices are
prepared and served out from this kitchen.
Layout of Bakery and Confectionery:
Bakery and confectionery is a very important section of the kitchen, as this department operates
round the clock and is the busiest operation. It produces breakfast rolls for the morning breakfast,
cakes and pastries for the pastry shop, and also the a la carte desserts of various restaurants and
banqueting operations.
Food Production Operation 30
Layout of Western Banquet Kitchen:
The Western banquet kitchen prepares food for banquets and is also responsible for bulk mise en
place required by other satellite kitchens such as soup bases, stocks, and sauces.
Banquets also prepare buffet food for all day dining restaurants.
Layout of Show Kitchen:
Show kitchens also known as ‗display kitchens‘, are the most modern trends in today‘s restaurants.
These kitchens not only add a style statement to the business but also act as a marketing tool, telling
the guests that the food prepared here is fresh and hygienic.
The guests do not complain about the delay in food, as they can see their meals being cooked in front
of their eyes. Show kitchens use best of equipment as the guests can see them and the maintenance
cost of the same is very high as compared to the equipment of the normal kitchens.
Food Production Operation 31
Kitchen Equipment, Tools & Utensils
Equipment Tools Utensils
Freezers & Refrigerators Ladle Fry Pan
Gas Ranges Spatula Oak Pan
Ovens Kitchen Fork Sauce Pan
Griddles Whisker Sauce Pot
Dough Mixture Knives Shallow Pan
Deep Fat Fryer Skimmer Stock Pot
Salamander Turner Sauce Pan
Juicer Machine Masher Cookers
Food Processor, Blender Peeler Mixing Bowl
Steam Jacket Kettles Tongs Sauté Pan
Tilting Skillet Pie Server Steamer
Bread Slicer Machine Grater Bake Pan
Bone Cutter Can Opener Roasting Pan
Pasta Maker Pastry Brush Braziers
Bain Marie Bench Scraper Hotel Pan
Overhead Infrared Colander Bain Marie Inserts
Microwave Ovens Conical Strainer /China Cap Cast Iron Skillet
Broilers Strainer wire, Spider Strainer Double Boiler
Food Production Operation 32
Menu is a list, in specific order, of the dishes to be served at a given meal. It is a list of dishes
usually printed to be served for a meal from where a dish is chosen by the guest and demanded
through an order.
A menu has the following functions.
Information: It satisfies a guest‘s need for information about what food is available, how it is
cooked and presented, and at what price.
Order: It presents the dishes in a logical order, usually listing the menu items under course
headings, thereby making comprehension of the menu easy.
Choice: It determines the freedom of choice that a guest may have.
Image: Menu helps present the overall image and style of the restaurant.
Sales: It is a means of promoting sales by appropriately describing the dishes which appeal to the
Menus are broadly classified into several types. They are as follows:
 À la carte: A list of dishes on the menu card where a guest can choose what he/she wants to
 Table d’hôte: It literally means ‗from the host‘s table‘. It is a meal usually divided into various
courses with little or no choice, and is available at a fixed price.
 Plat du jour: Food on a plat du jour menu is normally the specialty of the day or the chef.
Types of Meal
 Breakfast: Breakfast is the starting meal of the day and helps boost up the metabolism of
the body.
 Brunch: A meal had between breakfast and lunch. Brunch is a combination of breakfast and
lunch eaten usually during the late morning to early afternoon, generally served from 10am
up to 3pm, and regularly has some form of high tower likes brunch alcoholic drink (most
usually champagne or a cocktail) served with it.
 Elevenses: A light meal usually had at mid-morning hours.
 Lunch: It is a meal had during the daytime, ideally between 1 p.m. and 2 p.m.
 Afternoon tea/high tea: It is a light meal, usually had between 4 p.m. and 5 p.m. where tea
is served with light snacks.
 Cocktail: In this meal small bites are served normally with beverages.
 Dinner: This is the main meal of the day eaten between 7 p.m. and 9 p.m. Many people
prefer a light dinner, but for some people it is a lavish fare of wining and dining.
 Supper: It is a less formal meal eaten before dinner.
Food Production Operation 33
Menu is not only a selection of items presented to the guest in a written form, but it is also used as a
control tool. There are various things associated with menu that can be used to analyse and control
the same. Let us see and analyses few of them.
 Menu Specifications: Menu specification is described as information or description available on
the menu, especially if there is use of a foreign language or use of special type of cooking
 Menu Composition: A well-balanced meal satisfies guests‘ appetite, pleases them, and yet
leaves them without any feeling of overeating. Hence, the various dishes that constitute a meal
should be balanced; otherwise a series of dishes which are excellent individually may
collectively make an indigestible meal.
 Menu Engineering: Menu engineering is a tool used by modern day managers and chefs to
analyse the different aspects such as profitability and popularity of dishes on the menu. It is also
a very essential tool in making pricing decisions and modifying recipe design, keeping in mind
what guests want.
A graph can be formulated so as to put in all the menu items
and can be plotted with an axis of popularity margin and
profitability percentage.
Stars: Item on a menu that are high on contribution of
margin and popularity.
Managing Stars:
The following has to be done for managing ‗Stars‘
 Features the items prominently on the menu.
 Regularly promote these items.
 Increase the prices in peak season.
 Ensure that rigid specification and quality standards
are maintained.
Plow Horse: Item on a menu that are low in contribution
margin and high on popularity
Managing Plow Horse:
The following has to be done for managing ‗plow horse‘.
 Test small increase in selling price.
 Relocate the items to the lower profile of the menu.
 To increase the contribution margin, package it with high contribution items.
 Ensure that strict specification for purchasing, preparing, and presentation of food is
maintained. Make sure that there is no loss through wastage, spoilage, or pilferage of such
food items as these are high in food cost.
Puzzle: Items on the menu which are high in contribution and low on popularity.
Managing Puzzles
The following has to be done for managing ‗puzzles‘.
 Reposition the item on the menu and feature it more promptly on the menu.
 Rename the items and change the presentation.
 Increase up-sell the item.
 Give the item a special status.
Food Production Operation 34
Dogs: Items on the menu that are both low in popularity and low in contribution.
Managing Dogs
The following has to be done for managing ‗dogs‘.
 Increase the price of the item and raise the status to puzzle.
 Try and up sell the item.
 If the items are new on the menu, check the amount of time it has been there and accordingly
improve that particular dish.
 Remove the item from the menu.
The balance within a menu is achieved by the use of a range of ingredients, cooking methods and a
variety of condiments. We need to make sure we are also using the correct nutritional contents. The
most delectable and well-cooked food might not be appreciated by the guests, if it is not been served
in right portion size and with right accompaniment.
1. Hors-d oeuvre / Appetiser:
It is the food served as starter at the start of the meal. This course is composed usually of
dishes of a tangy, salty and spicy nature aimed at stimulating the appetite. It is served in
small quantity. For Example: smoked salmon, shrimp cocktail, smoked ham, etc
2. Potage / Soup:
It is a liquid food made from meat, poultry, sea food, vegetable or cereals. It stimulates the
appetite. There are mainly two types of soup – clear (thin) soup and thick soup. Soup can be
served both hot and cold. For example: cream of tomato, puree of lentil, consomme, etc.
3. Egg / Pasta or Rice (Oeuf/Farinaceous):
Oeufs are the dishes made from egg. There are many styles of cooking and preparation of
eggs such as boiled, poached or scrambled. This course is not included in the dinner menu.
This is Italy‘s contribution to the courses of the menu. It includes different kinds of rice and
pasta. Pasta dishes are spaghetti, lasagne and gnocchi. There are more than 200 varieties of
pasta. The ingredients, size, shape and colour determine the type of pasta.
4. Poisson / Fish:
This course includes fish of different varieties cooked in different styles such as poached,
grilled, baked and fried. For example: poached pomfret, baked haddock, fish meuniere, etc.
5. Entrée / Entrée:
The First in the meat course Entrées is generally small, well-garnished dishes which come
from the kitchen ready for service.
6. Releves / Joints:
This is the second meat course. It includes large joints of lamb, mutton or pork. Nowadays,
this course is often included in the Entree. For example: roast loin of pork, roast leg of lamb,
roast rib of beef, braised saddle of lamb, etc.These joints are normally roasted. A sauce or a
roast gravy with potatoes and green vegetables are always served with this course.
Food Production Operation 35
7. Sorbet / Sorbet:
Because of the length of the French classical menu, this course is considered to be the rest
between courses. It refreshes the palate with flavored ice water or flavored Champagne or
liqueur. Russian / Egyptian or Turkish cigarettes or Cuban cigar are often passed around
during this course. For example: leechi sorbet, vanilla sorbet, lemon sorbet, mango sorbet,
8. Roti / Roast:
This course consists of game or poultry such as chicken, duck, turkey, pheasant, quails, etc.
Each dish is accompanied by its own particular sauce or gravy along with a green salad. For
example: roast turkey, roast duck, roast chicken, etc.
9. Legumes / Vegetables:
We now have a vegetable dish served only with its accompanying sauce. These are vegetable
dishes that can be served separately as an individual course or may be included along – with
the entrée, relevé or roast courses.
10. Entremets / Sweets:
Entremets on a menu refers to desserts. This course includes hot or cold sweets. For example:
puddings, caramel custard, suffles, chocolate mousse, apple pie, black forest, etc.
11. Cheese / Savory (Fromage/Savoureux):
Fromage is an alternative to the outdated savoury course, and may be served before or after
the sweet course. It is usually served with butter, crackers and occasionally celery.
Savoury may be offered in place of cheese if one desires so. Savory consists of a tit-bit on a
hot canape of toast or fried bread. Alternatively, the cheese platter may be presented with
biscuits celery stalks as probable accompaniments. For example: scrambled egg on toast,
mushroom on toast, cheese toast, etc
12. Dessert / Cut Fruits & Nuts:
Dessert is a course that typically comes at the end of a meal. All forms of fresh fruit and nuts
may be served in this course. Common desserts include cakes, cookies, fruits, pastries and
13. Boissons / Beverage
All types of hot or cold beverage, Tea, Coffee etc. are served. Always remember that while
compiling menus beverages are not counted as a course.
There is possibly no better beverage to accompany a meal than wine. As wines are available in
infinite variety of tastes, texture, and aromas, they can be paired with several dishes from all over the
world. Here are some of the commonly accepted rules that can be paired with wine.
Rule 1: Always drink white wines with white meats and seafood.
Rule 2: Red wines with red meats, this rule probably works well.
Rule 3: Sweet wines go well only with dessert.
Rule 4: There are no rules regarding champagne. If one enjoys it one can have it throughout the
Food Production Operation 36
Any part of an herbaceous plant that can be eaten, either raw or cooked, is termed as vegetable.
Vegetable contain more of starch than sugar unlike fruits and hence, they are used extensively in
savoury dishes (salty or spicy dishes rather than sweet). Vegetables can be used in a variety of forms
such as frozen, canned, cooked, mashed, dried, dehydrated, or fresh.
Vegetables are eaten in variety of ways- raw or cooked, as main courses, or as snacks. Vegetables
have water soluble vitamins such as vitamins B and C, and fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and
K, and also contain minerals and carbohydrates.
Classification of Vegetables:
a. Leafy Vegetables
They are the leaves of the vegetable plant. They can be either consumed directly or cooked.
They can be used in salads for direct consumption, in gravies, soups, and other foods. They
have short shelf life, say a couple of days.
b. Root Vegetables
They are the roots of the plant. For example: Radish, beet root, turnip, Malanga, and carrot.
They can be consumed raw or cooked after cleaning off the soil properly. Root vegetables
must be preferably peeled before using. They are used for preparing stews, side dishes and
Food Production Operation 37
c. Stem Vegetables
They are the useful stems of the plant and have high quantity of mass. They can be cut,
chopped, or diced. They can be consumed raw or cooked. Their shelf life is longer than leafy
vegetables but shorter than bulb vegetables.
d. Tuber Vegetables
Tuber vegetables are the swollen part of the stem that grows underground. Potatoes are used
all over the world in a wide range of cuisines. Fresh ginger and turmeric are used to prepare
pickles and pastes.
e. Fruit Vegetables
They are the fruits of a plant and are called culinary fruits. They grow in large quantity.
Some of them can be eaten raw and rest all needs cooking. They need to be cleaned, cut into
pieces, and grilled or cooked for consumption. The chefs require to pay extra attention while
cutting for the presence of any pests inside these vegetables. Fruit vegetables are used to
make stock, soups, and stews.
Food Production Operation 38
f. Bud Vegetables
They are prominently the bud part of their plant. For example: Lettuce and cabbage. They
appear as if unopen or bloomed at the time of their harvesting. They are mostly consumed
directly. Lettuce is used in sandwiches and salads. Cabbage is an important ingredient in
South Asian cuisines.
g. Bulb Vegetables
A bulb is an underground part of the plant where nutrients are stashed. These bulbs are one of
the main ingredients in cookery. They are used to flavor soups and stews. They are also used
in seasoning various dishes. They have longer shelf life than any other type of vegetable. For
example: onion and garlic.
h. Flower Vegetables
They are the flowers of vegetable plant. They are cut into pieces and cooked to make stews.
They also need thorough washing to remove the pests or tiny insects. For example:
Cauliflower, Broccoli, Moringa (Flower of drumstick plant), Artichoke.
i. Fungi Vegetable
Commonly used fungi are mushrooms. They are consumed as staple diet all over the world.
There are many types of edible mushrooms with various shapes and colors. Mushrooms are
also used in preparation of sauce.
Food Production Operation 39
Cooking is the application of heat to food in order to make it safer to eat, digestible, and more
palatable. Cooking also changes the appearance of food. Heat can destroy nutrients in all vegetables.
Heat breaks down the cellulose and the starches present, changes and blends flavours within the
food, and also destroys bacteria in order to make food digestible for humans. Vegetables and other
foods are composed of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, water and small amount of minerals, vitamins,
pigments (colouring agents), and flavor elements. The only vegetable, also known as a fruit that does
not loose nutrients is tomatoes. The longer the vegetables are cooked, the more nutrients are lost.
The nutrients are lost through the water it‘s steamed in, and the steam itself. Raw is best, but if you
must cook them, cook until slightly tender, where some nutrients are still there.
Cooking affects vegetables in four ways. It changes the following:
1. Texture.
2. Flavor.
3. Color.
4. Nutrients.
Changing the texture is one of the main purposes of cooking vegetables. The changes in texture
while cooking vegetables need to be controlled. This can be done by various methods as discussed in
this section:
The fiber structures of vegetables (including cellulose and pectin‘s) give them shape and firmness.
Cooking softens some of these components. The amount of fiber varies
1. In different vegetable for example, Spinach and tomatoes have less fibers than carrots and
2. In different examples of the same vegetables. Old, tough carrots have more fiber than young,
fresh carrots.
3. In the same vegetable. The tender tips of asparagus and broccoli have less fiber than their
tougher stalks.
Food Production Operation 40
Starch is another vegetable component that affects texture. Dry starchy foods like dried legumes
(beans, peas, lentils), rice, and macaroni products must be cooked in enough water for the starch
granules to absorb moisture and soften. Dried beans are usually soaked before cooking to replace
lost moisture.
Moist starchy vegetables like potatoes and sweet potatoes have enough moisture of their own, but
they must still be cooked until the starch granules soften.
A vegetable is said to be done when it has reached the desired degree of tenderness. This stage varies
from vegetable to vegetable. Some, such as winter squash, eggplant, and braised celery, are
considered properly cooked when they are quite soft. Most vegetables, however, are best cooked
very briefly, until they are crisp-tender or al dente (firm to the bite). At this stage of tenderness, they
not only have the most pleasing texture but also retain maximum flavor, color, and nutrients.
For proper doneness some rules must be followed:
 Do not overcook
 Cook as close to service as possible.
 In case vegetables have to be precooked, they should be undercooked, refreshed in cold water,
and refrigerator.
 Cuts of vegetables should be uniform in order to cook them evenly.
 Different vegetables should be cooked differently.
Cooking produces flavor loss. Many flavors are lost during cooking by dissolving into the cooking
liquid and by evaporation. The longer a vegetable is cooked, the more flavor it loses. Flavor loss can
be controlled in several ways:
 Cook for as short a time as possible.
 Add salt in boiling water, as it helps in reduction of loss of flavour. Starting vegetables in
boiling water shortens cooking time.
 Use just enough water to cover to minimize leaching.
 Steam vegetables whenever appropriate. Steam cooking reduces leaching out of flavor and
shortens cooking time.
The colour of a vegetable is determined by the pigment it contains. Pigment is the colouring matter
within the cells and tissues of the plant. The various types of pigments are affected differently by
heat, acid, alkali, and other elements involved in cooking. To maintain as much colour as possible in
cooked vegetables, one needs to know about these pigments. Guest may reject dishes if they do not
like the colour of dishes when presented. Preserving natural colour of vegetables is very important.
Factors responsible for nutrients loss are:
 High heat or temperature.
 Cooking for longer periods.
 Too much of liquids that causes leaching.
 Use of alkalis (baking soda, hard water)
Food Production Operation 41
Some nutrients loss in vegetables is inevitable. Some tips for reducing nutrient loss are given
 Use of pressure steam reduces cooking time but at the same time high heat causes some
nutrients loss.
 Braising uses low heat but extends the cooking time.
 Boiling is faster than simmering; but high heat can destroy the vegetables.
Cleaning and Cutting of vegetables
Vegetables must be washed before cutting (I mean before cutting and this does not necessarily mean
before peeling). Most vegetables which needs peeling should be washed before peeling while others
(mostly which grows underground like potatoes, carrots, etc.) should be washed even after peeling
because these have lot of soil, dirt in them and that might remain on the surface of the vegetables
even after washing. More important than these, please keep your vegetables soaked in a solution of
vinegar, cooking soda and water for at least half an hour before starting to wash them. This will
ensure that the content of pesticide, insecticide, inorganic fertilizers are reduced from the surface of
the vegetables.
Cuts of Vegetables:
Julienne Thin strips of 1mm*1mm*25mm
Jardiniere Batons of 3mm*3mm*18mm
Macedoine Large dices 5mm*5mm*5mm
Brunoise Small dices 2mm*2mm*2mm
Slicing Cutting roundels from round vegetables
Paring Peeling the skin of vegetables using paring Knife
Chiffonade Shredded leafy vegetables
Paysanne Geometrical shapes of 1mm thickness
Wedges Round vegetables cut equally lengthwise
Mirepoix Roughly cut vegetables, sometimes with skin
Tourne Turning of vegetables into barrel shapes
Mincing Chopping the vegetables
Chopping Evenly cut vegetables smaller than brunoise
Food Production Operation 42
Fruits are rich source of vitamins and minerals and give the necessary nutrition to our body. Fruits
are generally eaten raw, but many of them can be cooked to serve as accompaniments, sauces, or
compotes. Some fruits are rich in pectin, an enzyme that helps in setting of jams and marmalades.
 On Basis of Texture and Flavour
Fruits are classified on the basis of their appearance and another way of segregating them is on the
basis of their texture and flavour. Broadly they will be classified into:
Soft fruits: Papaya, banana, melons, etc.
Stone fruits: Peaches, nectarines, mango, etc.
Apple and pear family: All apples and pears
Citrus fruits: Oranges, sweet lime, pineapple, etc.
 On Basis of Appearance and Flesh Content
Fruits can also be classified on the basis of appearance and flesh content.
1. Fleshy Fruits
These are fruits which have supple flesh around the seed. They can be subdivided again into those
formed from a single flower and those formed from a group of flowers. Those formed from a single
flower are classified as berry, drupe, aggregation of drupes, pomme, and hesperidium. Fruits which
grow from a group of flowers and generate only a single seed are sorosis (for example, mulberry),
synconium (for example, fig), and coenocarpium (for example, pineapple).
These are further subdivided into following:
Berry: They are single fleshy fruits without stone, and they have a lot of seeds. For example:
banana, kiwi, tomato, Passion fruit and pepper.
Drupe: They are Single fleshy fruits with hard stones and single seeds. For example: cherry, apricot,
plum, and peach.
Aggregation of Drupes: They are fleshy fruits, which have a collection of drupes formed out of
single flower, containing seed in each drupe. For example: raspberry, loganberry, and blackberry.
Pomme: These fleshy fruit have a thin skin, and are not formed from the ovary but from another part
of the plant. Also known as accessory fruits, they contain seeds in a chamber around the centre. For
example: apple, pear, and quince.
Hesperidium: It is a single fleshy fruit, which is berry with a tough aromatic rind. All the fruits
belonging to the citrus family lie in this category. For example: orange, lemon, and grape fruit.
2. Dry Fruits: They are divided into dehiscent (in these fruits seeds are contained in a seedpod
of some sort which opens to release the seeds) and indehiscent fruits (they do not have
seedpod which opens). Dry dehiscent fruits are follicle, legume, silique, and capsule, whereas
dry indehiscent fruits are achene, nut, samara, and caryopsis.
Food Production Operation 43
In simple words, a salad is a composition of ingredients that can be raw, cooked or cold, usually
served with a dressing and eaten as an appetizer or as a main course. The word ‗salad‘ originated
from the Latin word sal, meaning salt. The ancient Romans believed that adding salt to green leafy
vegetables would reduce bitterness, thus making it easier on the palate to consume.
Salads have come a long way since ancient Roman times, but even till date a salad will always
comprise the following:
The salad is built up on the base. It also helps in collecting the excessive dressing that has been used
in the salad. Common bases include iceberg cups, chiffonnade of lettuce, to the more contemporary
bases such as noodles, avocado halves, pineapples, etc. The modern trends are, however, drifting
away from using the traditional lettuce.
It is the most important part of the salad and is the focal point in any salad which is placed on top of
the base. It is the most substantial part which can comprise various ingredients, thus giving the salad
its name.
Dressing is used to moisten and flavor of the salad. It also helps reduce the excessive bitterness that
some salad leaves may have. It can be served by the side or tossed with the salad.
Garnish is of prime importance in any salad; it is the focal point of the salad and gives the salad its
distinctive nature. It provides the salad with colour, contrast, and elevation. Common garnishes are
chopped walnuts, fresh herb sprigs, fresh sprouted seed leaves, etc.
Based on the components of salads they can further be classified as shown in Fig. 11.1.
Food Production Operation 44
Simple Salads:
These salads comprise only one primary ingredient, which makes up the body, with one or two other
ingredients which make up the garnish. These salads are usually tossed with a dressing and one must
use ingredients which are grown fresh during the season. Examples: Beetroot salad, Tomato salad,
Compound Salads:
Compound salads are very elaborate in nature and can vary depending on the skill and the
imagination of the chef. Compound salads comprise of more than one ingredient unlike simple
salads. It can be classified as follows depending upon the ingredients used in the body.
(Fish based, Fruit based, Meat based, Vegetable based, Miscellaneous salads)
Tossed Salads:
Tossed salads refers to any salads where all the ingredients are placed in a bowl and mixed together
prior to serving.
Food Production Operation 45
It is served usually with all types of salad. It adds flavor, help in digestion, provides food value, and
improves palatability and appearance.
Dressing is in a liquid or semi-liquid in form, which is a mixture of oil, vinegar, seasoning, mustard
powder or egg or cream etc.
Purpose of Dressing
1. It makes salad palatable.
2. It makes salad attractive.
3. It makes salad digestible.
4. It works as a binding agent.
5. Provides Food Value.
Types of Dressing
1. Mayonnaise Dressing
Mayonnaise sauce and seasoning.
2. Acidulated Cream dressing
Cream, oil, vinegar and seasoning.
3. Vinaigrette Dressing
 French Vinaigrette Dressing
3 parts of oil + 1 part of vinegar + Mustard Powder + Seasoning.
 English Vinaigrette Dressing
1 parts of oil + 2 part of vinegar + Mustard Powder + Seasoning.
 American Vinaigrette Dressing
Equal quantity of oil & Vinegar + Sugar + Seasoning.
Food Production Operation 46
Salient features of preparing good salads
Following care should be given for preparing good salads.
1. All raw salad ingredients should be fresh and of impeccable quality. If required to be held or
stored for a time, they should be kept in a covered container in a refrigerator especially
reserved for the purpose.
2. All leaf salad vegetables should be carefully trimmed of all discoloured or damaged leaves
and roots, then washed in cold water, drained, and dried thoroughly.
3. Large salad leaves are best if carefully torn into manageable-sized pieces instead of cutting
with a knife.
4. Use the core part of the lettuce often referred to as ‗hearts of the lettuce‘ wherever possible,
as this part is very crisp and offers a natural crunch to the salad.
5. The cutting of vegetables, either raw or cooked, should be carried out as evenly and neatly as
possible. This is essential for good presentation.
6. Some items, such as avocado, pears, globe artichokes, and some fruits such as banana tend to
discolor quickly when cut. This can be prevented by preparing them at the last minute and
using a lemon-based dressing.
7. Attention should be paid to the optimum period of time required for the marination of some
types of salad. Mixing some ingredients with a dressing strongly flavoured with vinegar or
lemon juice will quickly destroy any inherent crispness.
8. As a general rule, salads comprising raw green salad leaves should be dressed and mixed at
the last possible minute and where practical, in front of the customer.
Food Production Operation 47
Accompaniments can be defined as those food items that come along with the principal dish to make
the principal dish complete such items are sauces, salads, vegetables cooked in various style of
cooking, certain meat items, cheese, breads etc. They add bulk to the dishes and give greater
satisfaction, improve the food value and enhance the taste and also help to digest foods, provide
moistness and give sharp and appetizing flavour to the dishes as well as sometimes give name to the
particular dish. Accompaniments must blend with the flavor, taste, and color and should give the
contrast to the principal dish.
Foods and their usual Accompaniments
Food Items Accompaniments
Roast Chicken Bread Sauce, Roast Gravy, Roast Potato
Continental Soup Bread Rolls, Bread Stick, Butter
Fried Fish Tartare Sauce
Poached Fish Hollandaise Sauce or Egg sauce and
Melted Butter
Roast Beef Horse-Radish sauce and Roast Gravy
Roast Lamb Mint Sauce and Roast Gravy
Roast Pork Apple Sauce, roast gravy and sage and
Onion Stuffing
Garnish can be defined as food items placed around or on the top of the principal dish for the
adornment or relish. ‗A careful selection of garnishes that have flavor, color and eye appeal is
appreciated and it is accepted as a finished dish. Garnish makes the dish attractive in appearance,
enhance the flavor and improve color.
There are two types of garnished used in the hotel, those are
1. Simple garnish consists of a single element, most commonly a vegetable, braised, sautéed
or fried and croutons etc.
2. Compound garnish are made from a number of ingredients varying according to the basic
dish. While selecting the food item as garnish, it is important to ensure that they are neatly
and tastefully decorated and keeping with the item of food that they accompany.
Food Items Garnishes
Tomato Juice Lemon Wedges
Shell Fish Cocktail Boiled Egg, Parsley, Lemon
Fruit Cocktail Cherry
Soups Julienne/Brunoise of Vegetables, Spaghetti, Croutons, etc.
Stew Diced/Turned Vegetables, grilled Tomatoes, Mushroom,
Peas, French Beans.
Sandwiches Shredded carrot, lettuce, cabbage
Tandoori Murgh, Seekh Kabab Sliced onion, Lemon wedges, Mint Chatney
Masala Fried Fish Lemon wedges and Coriander Leaves
Curries/Gravies Coriander Leaves
Fried Dal Red Whole Chilly, Coriander Leaves
Food Production Operation 48
Stock can be simply defined as liquid which has been simmered for a long time in order to extract
flavours from the ingredient used.
 Stock is a clear, thin liquid flavored by soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry,
and fish, and their bones, and from vegetables and seasonings.
 It issued in the preparation and foundation of various dishes such as soups, sauces,
gravies, curries, stews, braising, rice and cold dishes.
Basic ingredients used for the preparation of stock
• Bones (chicken, beef/veal, fish, games/game birds)
• Acid products (Tomato products, wine)
• Scraps and left over
• Bouquet garni (Thyme, bay leaf, black pepper corn, garlic, cloves, parsley stems)
• Mirepoix (roughly cut aromatic vegetables like carrot, onion, celery, turnip, leek)
Points to be considered while preparing stock:
• All fat bloodlines and marrows should be removed from bone before preparing
• Scum should be removed from time to time during simmering.
• Stock should only be simmered but not boiled.
• Mirepoix and bouquet garni must be fresh, not stale.
• Salt should never be added to stock.
• Stock should not be covered with lid
Types of stock
The bones and vegetables are simmered to extract colour, flavour, aroma, and body of the
resulting stock. The stocks are basically classified according to their colours. These are discussed
• White stock
• Brown stock
White Stock
Both white and brown stocks are made from bones and vegetables, however, the process
followed for each one are slightly different. The procedure for making white stock differs from
that of brown stock mainly in that rather than roasting the bones beforehand, they are blanched
instead. Blanching helps get rid of the impurities in the bones that can cloud the stock. No tomato
product is used for white stocks. ‘
Brown Stock
In case of brown stocks, the bones and vegetables are roasted or caramelized. Tomato paste is
used and it is also sautéed to get a deep brown colour. The shin bones of beef have’ the best
flavours and hence, the most preferred for brown beef stocks.
Stocks are the base for any Western cooking; Most commonly, it is used to make soups ‘ and
sauces; but the usage is not just limited to this. White stocks are used in preparations of white
sauces and clear soups, while brown stocks are used in brown sauces, red meat stews, and
braised dishes. Stocks can also be used to prepare certain rice dishes such as risotto and biryani.
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Preparing white stock:
A good white stock has rich, full flavor, good body, clarity, and little or no color.
Basic white stock
Yield: 8 L
Time: Beef and veal: 6-8 hours
Chicken: 3-4 hours
5-6 kg, Bones: chicken, veal, or beef
10-12 L, cold water
500 g, onion chopped
250 g, carrot chopped
250 g, celery chopped
1. If beef or veal bones are whole, cut them into pieces, 3-4 inches long.
2. Place the bones in the stock pot and cover with cold water. Bring to a boil, reduce heat to
simmer, and skim the scum.
3. Add the mirepoix and sachet ingredients.
4. Simmer for require length of time.

Preparing Brown stock:
Basic Brown stock
Yield: 8 L
5-6 kg, Bones: chicken, veal, or beef
10-12 L, cold water
500 g, onion chopped
250 g, celery chopped
250 g, Carrot chopped
• If beef or veal bones are whole, cut them into pieces, 3-4 inches long.
• Place the bones in a roasting pan (200˚C) and brown them well. Remove the bones and
place in the stock pot and cover with cold water
• Toss the mirepoix with reserved fat and brown well in oven. Reduce heat to simmer &
remove scum.
Add the browned mirepoix, the tomato product, and the sachet to the stockpot.
Bouquet garni/ sachet:
1, bay leaf
¼ tsp, thyme
¼ tsp, peppercorns
6-8, parsley stems
2, whole cloves
Bouquet garni/ sachet:
1, bay leaf
¼ tsp, thyme
¼ tsp, peppercorns
6-8, parsley stems
2, whole cloves
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Fish stock or Fumet
Yield: 4 L
30 g, butter
125 g Onion, chopped
60 g Celery, chopped
60 g Carrot, chopped
Bones from lean fish
White wine, dry
Cold water
Bouquet garni/ Sachet:
1 Bay leaf
1 g Peppercorns
6-8 Parsley stems
1 Whole clove
• Butter the bottom of a heavy stockpot or saucepot. Place the mirepox in the bottom of the pot
and the bones over the top of it.
• Set the pot over low heat and cook slowly for about 5 minutes.
• Add the wine, bring to a simmer, and then add the sachet and water to cover.
• Bring to a simmer again, skim and let simmer for 35-45 minutes.
• Strain through a china cap.
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A soup is a flavourful and nutritious liquid food served at the beginning of a meal or a snack. Soup
may be defined as the semi-liquid or liquid mixture of the ingredients for e.g. meat, vegetables, sea
food, spices and herbs etc. It has good texture and the consistency. Soups are the second course on
the French classical menu and are referred to as ‗potage‘.
Classification of Soup:
 It is also known as clear soups.
 Strain and prepared without the mixing of starch.
 It is thin nutritious liquid and garnished with small cuts of vegetables or meat items e.g.
 Derived from a French word ―consummate‖ means ―perfect‖
 Strongly flavor liquid prepared from meat bones, egg white, bouquet garni, mirepoix and
 It is perfectly cleared and transparent.
 It is one of the greatest of all soups.
 It is an unpassed soup.
 It is a little cloudy liquid contains all type of vegetables, meat, chicken etc.
 Usually have the cheaper cuts of meat.
Popular broths are:
 Mutton broth
 Chicken broth
Fruits soup
Cream of
French onion soup
Mulligatawny soup
Hot and Sour soup
Tom Kha Khai
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 Thick soups are thickened with the help of cream, puree, cornstarch etc.
 Classified into five categories:
 Puree
 Cream
 Veloute
 Bisques
 Chowders
 They are normally based on starchy ingredients i.e. leguminous plants, potatoes or cereals.
 They need not require any thickening agents as they are self-thickeners.
 They are strained with a sieves or strainers.
 The consistency of soup is thick.
 Water and stock is the liquids to cook the soups.
 Soup served with fried golden brown croutons (fried small dices of bread).
Common puree soups are:
• Pea soup
• Lentils puree
 They are prepared of puree of vegetables, meat fish or poultry.
 They are thickened with roux, beurre manie, liaison or milk/cream.
 Milk is used to attain the correct consistency.
• Thickness: The consistency of heavy cream. Not too thick.
• Texture: Smooth, no graininess or lumps (except garnish).
• Taste: Distinct flavor of the main ingredient (Asparagus in cream of asparagus etc), No
starchy taste from uncooked roux.
Various cream soups are:
• Cream of chicken soup
• Cream of lentil soup
• Cream of mushroom
• Cream of tomato soup
 They are different from purees as they are made with the combination of thickening elements
and a roux.
 It is made by preparing roux and adding stock and the pureed vegetables or meat and hot milk is
used to attain a smooth soup.
 Finishing is done by a liaison that is egg yolk and cream as it enhances the taste and texture.
Veloute soups are:
o Chicken Veloute soup
o Celery Veloute soup
o Almond Veloute soup
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 These are made from the shellfish.
 Thickened with roux.
 It is a thick cream soup with small particles of cooked shellfish floating on top to add flavor and
Bisque soups are:
o Shrimp bisque soup
o Crayfish bisque soup
o Lobster bisque soup
 Originated from America.
 Made from fish, shellfish and vegetables.
 Thickened with the use of potatoes.
 Made from fish, shellfish and vegetables.
 They are thick and heavy soups
Chowder soups are:
o Potato chowder
o Clam chowder
o Seafood chowder
o Oyster chowder
 It includes the natural gelatin‘s jellies to make meat stocks.
 Thickened with a starch or puree.
 Cold consommé madrilène is popular cold soup.
 Vichyssoise is a cold soup and a rich cream of potato soup and garnish with chopped chives.
 Numerous varieties of international soups such as cold, hot, thin or thick etc.
 It originated from the different places and locality within the different countries
International soups are:
Minestrone: Italy
Green turtle: England
French onion: France
Mulligatawny: India
Scotch broth: Scotland
Tom kha khai: Thai
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The following points should be kept in mind while preparing soup.
1. Always use good quality stock to make soups.
2. Clear soup should be very clear and cream soups should be smooth and velvety.
3. The flavour of the main ingredient should stand out in the soup.
4. For white soups use only white ‘mirepoix and vice versa.
5. The thick soup should never coat the back of the spoon, it should be thick and creamy yet not
so thick.
6. Keep skimming the soup and use as less fat and butter as possible, because a soup is
considered to be a healthy option and one does not want to see a layer of fat floating on the
7. Season the soups moderately, so that the flavour of the main ingredient is enhanced and then
guests can always use the cruet set.
8. Use whole peppercorns rather than using crushed ones, as the oil in the crushed peppercorns
would make the soup taste bitter.
9. Check the seasoning in the cold soups before serving, as the seasoning goes down once the
soup is chilled.
10. Use appropriate garnishes for the soups.
11. For puree soups, use starchy vegetables as they puree well and give a good texture and
flavour to the soup.
12. Always cook the flour before adding to a soup as a thickening agent, otherwise it will taste
13. While storing the soups in the refrigerator, keep them unfinished. At the time of guest order,
heat and add the seasoning and cream or butter as desired.
14. Never store soup beyond two days, as the quality will deteriorate.
Modern Trends of Serving Soups:
Service of Soups
Standard portion sizes
 Appetizer portion: 6 to 8 oz. (200 to 250 ml)
 Main course portion: 10 to 12 oz. (300 to 350 ml)
 Serve hot soups hot, in hot cups or bowls.
 Serve cold soups cold, in chilled bowls or even nested in a larger bowl of crushed ice.
Commonly used garnishes for soups
 Croutons dices or other shapes made from bread, toast, pastry.
 Cereals rice or barley.
 Cheese balls or grated parmesan served with croutons on one side.
 Cream unsweetened whipped cream or sour cream.
 Meats usually small dices or juliennes.
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Sauce is essentially a moist or a liquid component, which is served along with the dish to add
contrasting and complementary flavours. Apart from adding moistness to the dish, it also adds
texture to a particular dish and enhances the taste. Sauces also add a visual interest to the entire
Uses of Sauces
Sauces are used for various purposes. Here are some of the uses of sauces discussed below:
1. Flavour
Sauces add flavour to the dish and at times, some liquids in which foods are cooked are
processed and served as accompanying sauces, or sometimes contrasting flavored sauces are
served to bring about the character of the dish.
2. Moisture
The most important reason to serve a sauce is to provide moistness to the food.
3. Visual Appeal
Sauces are also used to provide a contrasting colour onto a plate, so that the overall
appearance of the dish is enhanced and it looks like a work of art. Care should be taken while
using sauces to offer contrasting colours.
4. Texture
This is one of the most important reasons as to why a sauce is served along with a dish.
Sauces add texture to the food and enhance the overall experience.
5. Nutritional Factor
The very need of providing the sauces in the first place was to use the liquid that has leached
out during the cooking process. While roasting a plump chicken, wonderful natural juice of
the chicken ooze out from the flesh and get collected in the roasting pan. These juices contain
all the flavours and nutrition that the chicken has to offer and if not served along with the
dish, the goodness of the dish will be lost. The juices are collected in the pan and further
addition of reduced chicken stock creates a sauce called jus roti or roast gravy.
Before preparation of various sauces, it is important to understand the various thickening agents
1. Roux: Refined wheat flour cooked with the same quantity of clarified butter is referred to as roux.
 White Roux: It emits an aroma of baking bread and is used for making white sauce and
thickening for the cream soups.
 Blond Roux: It emits the flavour of toasted nuts and is used to make veloute’ sauce and can
also be used in certain cream SOUPS.
 Brown Roux: It emits a deeply roasted aroma and is used to prepare brown sauces. The
darker the roux, the stronger is the flavour. It is used for red meats such as beef and lamb.
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2. Slurry:
A mixture of cornstarch, potato flour or arrowroot, and water is referred to as slurry. It is
generally used in Chinese and other Asian sauces and is added to give a shine to the Sauce. One
should be careful in adding the slurry to the hot liquid as it instantly thickens when added to the
boiling liquid. One tbsp of cornstarch would thicken 1 cup of liquid, In case of arrowroot and
potato starch, only 1/2 tbsp per cup of liquid would be required as these are stronger than
3. Beurre Manié:
Equal amounts of butter and flour are kneaded together to form a paste, which can be added to
boiling liquids to thicken them. Since beurre is not a cooked product, we must ensure that the
liquid boils for a considerable time to get rid of the raw flavour of the flour.
4. Liaison:
Usually one part of egg yolk and three parts of cream are whisked together and are used to thicken
the sauces. The purpose of the liaison is not only to thicken but it also enriches the sauces. One
has to be very careful while adding the liaison, as it should be added into a hot liquid but never
boiled again, as the egg will curdle.
5. Blood:
It is rarely used these days because of health reasons; but blood was a very common thickening
agent used in the olden times.
6. Butter:
Butter is also used in many sauces to provide the thickness to the sauce. Cold butter when
whisked into a hot sauce gives a shine and thickness.
7. Vegetable & Fruit Purees:
Starch from fruit and vegetable purees used in a dish provides the thickening to the dish and
hence, require no other thickening agents.
Mother sauces
Mother sauces are sauces that are a staple in traditional French cuisine. Each of these sauces serves
as the base for smaller, derivative sauces. Basic sauces that serve as a base sauce to use in making
other variations of the original sauces.
The following are the basic six mother sauce.
1. Béchamel (White Sauce):
Béchamel is a sauce made by thickening hot milk with a simple white roux. The sauce is then
flavored with onion, cloves & nutmeg & simmered until it is creamy and velvety smooth.
2. Hollandaise:
Hollandaise is consider as egg thickened sauce. Hollandaise sauce is an emulsion of egg
yolk and liquid butter, usually seasoned with lemon juice, salt, and a little white
pepper or cayenne pepper. In appearance, it is light yellow, smooth and creamy. The flavor is
rich and buttery, with a mild tang added by an acidic component such as lemon juice, yet not
so strong as to overpower mildly-flavored foods.
3. Mayonnaise:
Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy sauce often used as a condiment. It is a
stable emulsion of oil, egg yolks and either vinegar or lemon juice with many options for
embellishment with other herbs and spices. Mayonnaise varies in color, but is often white,
cream, or pale yellow.
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4. Espagnole (Brown Sauce):
Brown sauce is a traditional condiment served with food, normally brown or dark orange in
color. Brown sauce is traditionally eaten with meals and dishes such as full breakfasts, bacon
sandwiches or chips and baked beans. Thickening rich brown roux makes the brown sauce.
5. Velouté:
It literally means velvet. It is a very light blond coloured sauce, made from chicken, fish, or
veal stock thickened with a blond roux. The sauce produced is commonly referred to by the
type of stock used e.g. chicken velouté.
6. Tomato Sauce:
Tomato Sauce recipe is one of the mother sauces of classical cuisine. Roux is no need for this
sauce to thicken. Tomato themselves are enough to thicken the sauce.
Proprietary Sauces
These sauces are industrially made and have been used in the kitchen since time immemorial.
Proprietary Sauces Denotes:
1. Sauces that are not made in the kitchen, but can be purchased from the market.
2. They are imported or procured locally.
3. They have a unique taste which cannot be reproduced by anybody.
4. It has a secret recipe, guarded by patents.
5. They are multipurpose in their use.
The common proprietary sauces used in the kitchen are:
1. Soya Sauce
2. Worcestershire Sauce
3. Barbecue Sauce
4. Ketchup
5. Tabasco Sauce
6. Chilly Sauce
Name of the Sauce Body Thickening Agent Seasoning
Béchamel Sauce Milk White Roux Salt, Pepper, Nut meg
Hollandaise Sauce Butter Egg Yolk Salt, Pepper
Espagnole Sauce Brown Stock Brown Roux Salt, Black pepper, Red
Mayonnaise Sauce Egg Oil Salt, Black pepper
Veloute Sauce White Stock Blond Roux Salt, Pepper
Tomato Sauce Tomato Tomato Puree Salt, pepper
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Contemporary Sauce:
These sauces are simple, less rich and easy to prepare.
 Pesto Sauce: Pesto means a paste and is popularly made with basil herbs.
 Harissa: A violently hot red pepper sauce used as a table condiment, and is an essential
 Salsa Di Noci: This sauce is pounded with additional of walnut and traditionally served with
 Almond Tarator: Turkish sauce goes well with grilled and deep-fried foods.
 Beurre Blanc: An emulsified sauce with citric juices, white wine, clarified butter, and
cream. This French sauce is served with fish and shellfish.
Following are the points to he kept in mind while making a good sauce.
1. Always use good quality stock to make sauces.
2. The sauce should be smooth and glossy unless specified for a purpose.
3. Never allow a skin to form on top of a sauce as this will result in lumps, when mixed later.
4. Cook the sauce for a long time, this would intensify the flavours in the sauce and it would
also provide a gloss to the sauce.
5. Always season the sauce in the end, as the reduction of the sauce will result in a salty sauce.
6. Skim the sauce whenever necessary; a greasy stock should never be used for making sauce as
this will result in a greasy sauce.
7. Always use correct utensils to make sauces. Cooking white sauce in an aluminium container
with a steel whisk will make the sauce turn greyish black and citric sauces made in copper
vessels will also discolour them.
8. The flavour of the main ingredient should stand out in the sauce. Extra flavoring, such as
mirepoix, should not overpower the flavour of the main ingredient used.
9. For white sauces use only white mirepoix.
10. Check the seasoning in the cold sauces before serving, as the seasoning goes down once the
sauce is chilled.
11. Always cook the flour before adding to a sauce as a thickening agent, otherwise it will taste
12. While storing the sauces in the refrigerator, keep them unfinished. At the time of guest order,
heat and add the seasoning and cream or butter as desired.
13. Never store the sauce beyond two days, as the quality will deteriorate.
Food Production Operation 59
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Science defines seed as a reproductive unit of any plant which produces flowers and is in the form of
a grain which is capable of growing into an adult plant if sown. Seeds are very useful in kitchen and
can be used in various forms and for various uses. If we closely look around in the kitchen we will
find seeds such as spices, nuts, rice, cereals, pulses, and even coffee.
Classification Description Examples
As flavourings This category includes all those seeds that
are used as herbs and flavourings.
Fennel, caraway, coriander
seeds, etc.
As spices and
These are used as spices. They impart a
natural colouring to a dish.
Cumin, poppy seeds, sesame
seeds, annatto seeds, etc.
As food grains These are seeds of grass plants and are
known as cereals.
Wheat, millet, corn, oats, etc.
As pulses These are the seeds of legumes and are
also known as lentils.
Moong, red kidney beans,
adzuki, etc.
As nuts These seeds are found in hard coverings
and some grow below the ground as well.
Almonds, walnuts, coconuts,
As seeds for oils These seeds are rich in oil and can be used
for production of oils.
Mustard, linseed, grape seed,
sesame, etc.
As beverage The most popular beverage, coffee, comes
from this category. This category is also
used in the production of chocolate.
Coffee, cocoa beans, etc.
Miscellaneous These seeds are those which do not fall in
the above categories, but have specific use
in the kitchen.
Basil seed, which swell up on
soaking are served with
frozen milk dessert called
kulfi in India.
Seeds as Spices: Many seeds are used as spices, for flavorings, coloring, thickening, etc.
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Nuts are the edible seeds covered with hard kernel. They are used in preparing gravies, salads, and
sauces. Nuts have high amount of oils and high fat contents. Nuts are highly nutritious and full of
flavor. They are rich in vitamins (B complex and E), as well as minerals (magnesium, potassium,
iron, calcium, and phosphorous. They contain huge amount of calories. Nuts can be eaten whole and
they are great source of protein, good fats, essential minerals, and vitamins.
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A spice can be any part of the plant from a seed, fruit, root, bark, bud or vegetable substance, which
is especially used to flavor and color the foods. Spices bring in exotic aroma to the cooked food and
also promise health benefits.
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A grain is a small, hard, dry seed, with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human
or animal consumption. A grain crop is a grain-producing plant. The two main types of commercial
grain crops are cereals and pulses.
Difference between Cereals and Pulses:
Pulses are often referred to as lentils and these are fibrous and starchy but high in protein content as
compared to cereals. Pulses are the edible seeds of plants belonging to legume family which includes
beans, peas, and lentils. These are dried as soon as they are plucked from the plant, so as to retain the
flavour, texture, and plumpness. They have an important place in vegetarian staple food consumed
around the world. Pulses can be cooked by various cooking methods; but the most common ones are
boiling, stewing, and sometimes braising.
Cereals Pulses
These are the seeds of grass plants such as
wheat, rice, barley oats, etc.
These are the edible seeds of certain legumes.
These are usually ground into flours. These are soaked and boiled to be. made into
stews, soups, salads, etc.
These are rich sources of complex
These are rich sources of proteins.
Cereal is usually covered with a husk that is
often eaten as bran, which is a rich source of
The husk of pulses do not find any usage like
those of cereals,
They are grown in larger quantities. They are grown in smaller quantities as
compared to cereals.
They provide energy. They provide muscle strength
Examples are barley, corn, buckwheat, etc. Examples are kidney beans, peas, black gram,
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Cereals are seeds of grass plants and they comprise edible grains such as wheat, oats, rice, etc. They
are the seeds obtained from various grass plants such as Wheat, Rice, Barley (Jau), Maize,
buckwheat (fapar) and Millet (kodo). In most of the countries, they are consumed as a part of staple
Cereals are either roasted or made to flour. There are numerous ways in which cereals are used in
cookery. Take a look at the following table.
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Rice cultivation is dated back to 5000 BC and it is believed that rice was first cultivated in Asia. The
Chinese are believed to be the first to have cultivated rice; but there is no historical evidence to this
fact, as historians believe that rice was cultivated around the world simultaneously. Since there are
so many varieties of rice it becomes necessary to classify them. Most of the times rice is classified
on the basis of its size of the grain and the length of the grain usually define the style of cooking of
the rice.
Cooking of Rice:
Mostly rice is boiled or steamed. The key to cook rice is that how much proportion of water to take
while cooking it and also the time that should be taken to cook it.
The proportion of liquid depends upon:
1. Tightness or looseness of the cover or lid;
2. Desired moistness of the finished product;
3. Variety, age, and moisture content of the rice used; and
4. Method of cooking used that is either absorption or drainage method.
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Egg (Le Oeuf)
Science defines egg as a cell from which a living organism takes birth and grows. Egg is a round
object with a hard substance. It is produced by female of bird, reptile and insects. Eggs are very
versatile food. They have the ability to retain air in their foam – like structure when whisked. In the
culinary field, the term egg applies not only to that of hen, but also to the edible eggs of other birds,
such as turkeys, geese, ducks, quails and gulls. The structure of a fully developed egg reveals that it
consists of a shell, shell membranes, white part of the egg (albumen), yellow part of the egg (yolk),
and a germinal disc.
Shell: It is the outer covering of the egg
and is composed of calcium carbonate.
It may be white or brown depending
upon the breed of the chicken.
Yolk: This is the yellow portion of an
Vitelline: It is a clear seal that holds
the egg yolk.
Chalazae: These are the twisted
cordlike strands of the egg white. They
anchor the yolk in the centre of the egg.
Shell Membranes: Two shell membranes, inner and outer membrane, surround the albumen. They
form a protective barrier against bacteria. Air cell forms between these membranes.
Air Cell: It is the pocket of air formed at the large end of the egg. The air cell increases with the age
of the egg as there is considerable amount of moisture loss.
Albumen: It is nearest to the shell. When the egg is broken there will be a clear demarcation of the
thin and thick albumen. As the egg gets older these two albumens tend to mix into one another. This
is again a test of good and fresh egg.
1. Chicken eggs: These are the most commonly eaten eggs around the world. They are available in
brown colour and white colour. The brown coloured ones are referred to as desi eggs in India.
2. Duck eggs: They are darker in colour than chicken eggs and are larger in size too. The duck eggs
are stronger in flavour and are always eaten very fresh, as the flavour intensifies with age.
3. Goose eggs: Similar in size and colour to duck eggs, goose eggs taste slightly oily as they have
more fat content.
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4. Guinea fowl eggs: They are flecked with brown colour and are boiled between 3-5 minutes and
served in salads.
5. Gull eggs: Since sea gulls prey on sea food, their eggs are also fishy in flavour and hence are
valued. These are usually boiled for 5 minutes and served cold with celery salt. They are smaller
than chicken eggs.
6. Ostrich eggs: These weigh around 500 g and are 10 times bigger than chicken egg. One egg can
feed four people and is used in the same way as chicken egg.
7. Pheasant eggs: These eggs have a natural pinkish hue and are around the size of a quail egg.
They can also be used as chicken eggs.
8. Quail eggs: They are speckled and slightly brown in colour. They are usually 1/3 the size of a
chicken egg and are usually served cold or set in aspic jelly.
9. Plover eggs: They are very similar to quail eggs and are considered to be a delicacy. They are
usually served soft boiled.
10. Turkey eggs: These are creamy white in colour and speckled with brown colour. At times a
turkey egg can be twice the size of a chicken egg. The flavour is same as that of a chicken egg.
11. Thousand year old eggs: Also called century eggs, these are a Chinese delicacy that is cured for
around 100 days. These duck eggs are coated with mixture of lime, salt, tea ashes, and charcoal and
buried in the ground to mature. These are usually served shelled, sliced and are also served cold.
Food Production Operation 74
(Binding, coating, thickening, emulsifying, garnishing and clarifying)
Hors d’ oeuvre: Mayonnaise for salad.
Soup: Clarifying consommé, liaisons, garnishing consommé, thickening certain soups.
Egg dishes: Used in the making of various pastas (noodles).
Fish: Frying batters, coating.
Sauce: Liaisons, hollandaise, mayonnaise and béarnaise.
Meat/Poultry: For binding cutlets and coating meat / poultry
Salad: Used in many compound salads.
Sweet/Pastries: Sweet/ sauce/ cake.
Savouries: Soufflés.
Grading of eggs by weight
Large grade: 65 gm. and above.
Standard grade: 50-60 gm.
Medium grade: 45 gm.
Small grade: 40gm.
Storage of an Egg:
 Eggs must be stored in their packing trays with the pointed end facing downward.
 Always store in a cool room at 2°C to 5°C.
 Keep away from strong smelling food such as, cheese, onions, garlic, ginger, fish etc.
 Egg should never be washed before being stored, as washing would remove its natural
protective coating.
 Do not stock eggs for more than a week.
 Always adopt FIFO method.
Food Production Operation 75
Meat is a body tissue of any animal that is eaten as food. This could be meat from chicken, lamb,
cow, and even from frog leg. Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food. Meat is mainly composed of
water, protein, and fat. It is edible raw, but is normally eaten after it has been cooked and seasoned
or processed in a variety of ways.
Humans have hunted and killed animals for meat since prehistoric times. The advent of civilization
allowed the domestication of animals such as chickens, sheep, rabbits, pigs and cattle. This
eventually led to their use in meat production on an industrial scale with the aid of slaughterhouses.
All the meats, whether from cow, sheep, or pig have both physical and chemical characteristics.
Physical Characteristics:
The physical characteristics of meat are discussed below.
 Muscle Tissue
This is a fibrous connective tissue and it is further divided into skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle.
The smooth muscle is also known as visceral muscle. This would include all the arteries and the
veins in the meat. The skeletal muscle is responsible for most of the muscle weight on a carcass and
is made up of muscle fibers. Smooth muscles are found in an animal‘s stomach, reproductive organs,
and circulatory system.
 Adipose Tissue:
This is the tissue where fat is deposited and stored. As the animal ages in life, the concentration of
the fat also increases in the body. Initially the fat starts to deposit around the internal organs and the
pelvic area but as the animal continues to age, the fat gets deposited externally just beneath the skin.
Additional fat now starts to get deposited between the muscles and also within the muscles.
 Bone or the Skeletal Tissue
Skeletal tissue consists of the ligaments, tendons, cartilages, and bones of the animal. Bone tissue
can yield many nutrients and minerals, when it is used to prepare stock. Ligaments, tendons, and
cartilages yield little or no calories.
Chemical Characteristics:
The chemical characteristics consist of water, protein, fats, carbohydrates, minerals, and Vitamins.
Apart from these components, meats also have a pigment called myoglobin. It is this pigment which
is responsible for the colour in the meats.
Meat grading is one of the very important aspects of meat fabrication and distribution agencies. The
meat is priced on the various grades which are governed by very strictly laid out rules by that
country of origin. The grading of meat is divided into two types namely quality and yield.
Quality of the carcass indicates the quality of meat from the carcass. This depends on various factors
such as the texture, firmness, and the colour of the lean meat on the carcass.
Yield Grading
It determines the quantity of usable meat that the carcass will yield. Yield grading measures the
quantity of saleable meat the carcass will yield as either boneless or semi boneless retail cuts. This
grading also considers internal and external fat.
Food Production Operation 76
There are various steps considered before an animal is slaughtered for human consumption. Let us
discuss steps that are followed in the animal processing plants.
 Examination:
The animals that are brought into the plants for slaughtering are first examined physically for any
diseases and other disabilities.
 Resting of Animals:
The animals are stored in a place for at least 24 hours. This allows them to rest, as there is not
much allowed movement. During this resting period they are given plenty of water for the first
12 hours. The animals are then starved for another 12 hours, so that there are ho feces left in the
intestinal tract.
 Cleaning and Sanitizing:
The animals are then given a good shower and are scrupulously cleaned and sanitized or the next
 Stunning:
This is done to make the animal unconscious. Stunning helps avoid pain to the animal while
slaughtering. If the animal is conscious when slaughtered it will quake so much that blood will
spread, all around. There are different ways in which an animal is stunned. In the Olden days, the
animal used to be hit hard on the head by heavy hammers. This painful procedure was then
replaced by shooting the animal with a captive bolt from a pistol, which was hit on the front head
between the eyes. This would render the animal unconscious for a considerable amount of time.
This method is still followed in certain places. However, the modern methods of stunning
animals with electric tongs is very popular and commonly carried Out these days. An electric
shock of 70 volts is passed behind the ear of the animal to stun it.
 Slaughter:
This is done immediately after the stunning; not because the animal will regain consciousness;
but it is done because at this time the rate of the heart beat and pressure of blood is very high and
this will allow maximum blood to flow out of the animal. The jugular vein is cut to slaughter the
 Bleeding:
Since blood contains protein it is susceptible to bacterial contaminations. So it is advisable to
drain out as much as blood as possible. The animal is hung with the help of hooks with the head
facing down so that entire blood drains out of the animal.
 Meat Ageing:
Animal carcass must be aged to develop tenderness. Soon after the animal is slaughtered, rigor
mortis-a stiffening of muscle tissue-occurs. This condition disappears gradually within a period
of seven days in a large beef carcass and around three to four days for a lamb carcass. Cows and
pigs are slaughtered very young at the age of two months and five months respectively, hence
there is no need to age it.
Before we get into the classification of the meats, let us first understand the nomenclature of these
meat products. The term beef for instance, refers to the meat from cattle which are over nine months
old; all the other cattle which range between three to nine months are classified as calf and the meat
from cattle between one month and three months is known as ‗veal‘.
Bovines: Ox, cow, buffalo, bison, etc.
Ovines: Sheep, lamb, goat, deer, etc.
Swines: Pigs, Wild boar, etc
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All the animal in these categories differ from each other in size and shape and hence, even taste
differ from each other. For examples the taste of buffalo from that of cow would be very different
and so on. Meat could be broadly classified into various categories as shown below.
Categories of meats
Lamb Beef Pork Poultry Game
Meat from sheep
under 12 months
of age.
Meat from
cow. Meat
from young
calf is
called veal.
Meat from
Meat from chicken
and some other farm
raised birds such as
ducks, turkey, etc.
Furred wild animals such as
deer, rabbits, mountain goats,
Birds such as quails, wild
ducks, pheasants, wild
turkey, partridges, etc.
Meat comes from cattle and poultry. They are raised at farms with proper feeding and care. The meat
from cattle is more commonly known as red meat. There are various types of meats.
Red Meats
Red meat can be of the following types:
Beef: It comes from cattle over 12 months old. This meat is dark red in color with a thick layer of
white fat. The meat is hard and thick.
Veal: It is the meat of cattle less than 3 months old. It is deep pink with medium layer of white fat.
Veal is lean and tender as compared to beef.
Pork: It is the meat of domestic swine (pig). The meat is light pink in color with a thick layer of
creamy-white colored fat. o Ham: It is the meat of pork leg.
o Bacon: It is the tender meat of pig‘s belly.
o Pork ribs: It is the meat around pig‘s ribs.
Lamb: It is the tender meat of sheep or goat aged less than one year. It is light red and soft as
compared to mutton.
Mutton: It is the meat of sheep or goat older than one year. It is maroon-red colored meat, harder
than lamb meat and gives strong flavor.
Game Meat (Venison): It is the meat of any animal that is hunted for food instead of raised in the
farms. It includes the meat of Rabbit, Pheasant, Wild duck, deer, or sometimes a bigger animal like
bison. It has strong flavor. The game meat is widely consumed in Africa.
It is the meat of domestic fowls such as chicken, duck, goose, or turkey. Good poultry meat comes
from well-fed hygienic hens. The dressed poultry is slaughtered, de-feathered, and ready to roast
whole bird without head and clamps. Poultry gets cooked faster than red meats but quicker than fish
and shell fish.
The sausages are cured and uncooked meat rolls. Sausages are prepared by blending any ground or
minced meat with breadcrumbs, starch or flour, and spices, and filling the mixture into casings of
various diameter and lengths. At the time of consumption, it is cut into slices, often called salamis.
Food Production Operation 78
Fish and shellfish are commonly known as seafood. Though they could be procured from the sea,
ocean, river, or lake or they could also be farmed artificially to meet the demands of the customer;
they are still known as seafood.
Fish hold a special place in French classical menu, where it forms a separate course called poisson.
The texture of this meat is very different from other meat. Fish is rich in protein content and some of
them are rich in oils, such as Omega-3, which is a preferred choice for people suffering from heart
1. Habitat
Fish can be classified based on its habitat. As we know, fish comes from the sea, ocean, river, or
lake, and each of these habitats play a very important role in its taste and texture. As we mentioned
earlier, no matter where the fish comes from it is still referred to as seafood. There could be a species
of fish that thrives both in sea as well as river. These are then differentiated by their name such as
sea sole or river sole. The taste does differ, as sea fish are considered to be healthier because of the
salinity in the water. The flavour of such fish is called ‗oceanic flavour‘.
a. Freshwater Fish
Some species of fish tolerate and sometimes migrate back and forth between saline waters and fresh
waters. Fish that are predominantly inhabitants of fresh water are described as freshwater fish and
include bass, perch, pike, smelt, sturgeon, trout, etc. Freshwater fish are lean because they exercise
more-swimming against the current and migrating along the river course.
Classification of fish
Habitat Physical shape Flesh Type
Salt water – Sea and Ocean
Fresh water – Rivers, Lakes,
Round Fish
Flat Fish
b. Seawater Fish
These are inhabitants of marine water and are adapted to the sea conditions. These fish do not
exercise much because the high concentration of salt in the sea water helps them float and they do
not have to move against any current. This is the reason why most of these fish are oily and fatty in
nature. Oils present in some of them, such as Omega-3, are beneficial for heat patients.
2. Physical Shape
Fish are also classified as per their shape. There are two shapes of fish-round and flat. As the name
suggests, flat fish are flat in appearance while round fish are well rounded and plump. There are
many ways in which one can differentiate between flat and round fish.
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Difference between flat and round fish
Flat Fish Round Fish
1. This fish is flat in shape.
2. Both its eyes are on one side.
3. It swims flat to the surface of the water
with the belly aligned parallel to the
water bed.
4. Belly side of the fish is white in colour.
5. It yields four fillets.
6. Examples are plaice, turbot, flounder,
skate, halibut, sole, etc
1. This fish is round in shape.
2. Eyes are on either side of the fish.
3. It swims in horizontal fashion.
4. Both the sides of the fish are of same
5. It yields two fillets.
6. Examples are salmon, trout, snapper, etc.
3. Flesh Type
Fish are also classified by its flesh type. The flesh of fish is either oily or ‘white. White fish is also
referred to as lean fish. All flat fish and many others, such as snapper, cod, etc., are lean fish or white
fish. Fish such as herring, mackerel, salmon, sardines, etc. are classified as oily fish. It is very
important for chefs to understand these differences in the structure of fish as cooking methods for
oily fish and white fish differ.
Shellfish are mainly categorized into crustaceans and molluscs.
Al the name suggests, these have crusts on top or a shell, which act as an armour. Shellfish have a
pigment called ‗astaxanthin‘, which on contact with heat turns into a coral red colour, which is much
desirable for shellfish. Unlike fish, shellfish do not have any cuts associated with them. They are
either cooked in the shell or out of the shell depending upon the end product desired.
Crabs Crawfish Crayfish
Lobster Prawns/ Shrimps Scampis
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Molluscs: Molluscs are shellfish that have a hard inedible shell. They are classified into three other
 Gastropods: These molluscs have a single shell. They are also known as univalves. For
example, Abalone and Conch.
Abalone Snails Conches Whelks
 Bivalves: These shellfish are covered by two shells or valves. For example, Clams, Scallops, and
Clams Cockles Mussels Oysters Scallops
 Cephalopods: Cephalopods means shellfish that have legs over their head. They are closely
related to snail family but the only difference is that they do not have external shells like the
snails; instead they have internal shells that are made from a spongy material.
Squids Cuttlefish Octopus
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1. Grilling:
Seafood is just wonderful on the grill. One has to select seafood that can withstand the heat of the
grill, and can stand up to the hot iron grills. Use seafood, such as tuna, lobsters, prawns, etc., which
are sturdy and do not fall or flake apart. Marinating in oil ensures that the fish does not stick to the
grill. Using wood for grilling could also add flavour to the fish.
2. Broiling:
You can broil most seafood even if they are fragile. You can broil them on a bed of vegetables such
as chopped onions, celery, peppers, and fresh herbs. You can serve the vegetables right along with
the fish.
3. Sautéing:
Sautéing is probably the most common method of cooking seafood. It is a quick way of cooking
seafood while maintaining optimum flavour. For best results, when you sauté, cook the side with the
skin first (if it is left on).
4. Cold and Hot Poaching:
You can poach fish or shellfish in two ways. Hot poaching cooks the fish in a boiling liquid. You
can cold poach seafood by pouring simmering liquid over the fish and allowing it to stand until the
fish is cooked. Hot poaching works well when the pieces of fish are large or when the fish is to be
served hot. Cold poaching works well with small pieces of fish that do not take long to cook, or
when the fish is to be served cold or at room temperature. Remember the more flavourful the
poaching liquid is, the more flavourful is the poached fish.
5. Olive Oil Poaching:
Poaching seafood in olive oil is a great way to slowly cook the fish. Cooking seafood in barely warm
oil keeps the protein from coagulating. Olive oil poaching lessens the release of natural fat and oil
from the fish, which helps to keep it moist. These slow cooking results in a succulent, perfectly
cooked piece of fish. This method of cooking is usually used for oily fish rather than lean fish.
6. Steaming:
Steaming fish keeps it extremely moist and flaky. In fact, steaming is a great way to prepare many
low-fat dishes and not just delicately flavoured fish. Steaming is very common to many Oriental
7. Roasting and Slow Roasting:
The only difference between slow roasting and roasting is the temperature. Regular roasting takes
place between 160 and 200°C. Slow roasting on the other hand takes place at temperatures as low as
80°C and barely cooking fish would take as long as 20 to 25 minutes. When you slow roast fish the
end result is a piece that is so moist that it melts in your mouth and falls apart when you touch it.
8. Smoking or Curing:
A number of popular fish products are smoked or cured or both or they are dried, pickled, or
otherwise treated to enhance their taste and prolong their usability. Smoked salmon, pickled herring,
smoked oysters, caviar (salted fish roe) belong to this group of fish foods.
Food Production Operation 82
The following points should be remembered while buying fresh fish:
 Eyes: Eyes should be bright, full and not sunken, slime or cloudy.
 Gills: Gills should be red with no shine.
 Skin: Skin should be shiny, good coloured, smooth and moist showing no sign of damage.
 Fin: Fins and tails should be stiff.
 Scales: Scales should be plentiful, moist and lying flat.
 Flesh: Flesh should be firm and resilient to touch.
 Fresh fish are stored in a container of crushed ice or in a separate refrigerator or part of a
refrigerator used only for fish.
 The temperature of storing fish should be controlled at 0° to 3°C.
 Frozen fish must be kept in deep freeze cabinet or compartment at -18°c to ~20°c.
 Smoked fish should be kept in a refrigerator at 0°C to 5°C.
 Canned fish products should be stored in cool dry place and used in rotation.
Food Production Operation 83
Method of preservation
 Freezing: Most fish and shellfish may be preserved by holding them at -18°C.
 Canning: The oily fish are usually canned in their own juice or tomato sauce.
 Salting: The cured fish is pickled in salt.
 Smoking: Cold smoking takes place at a temperature below 33°C and hot smoking fish in
cured at a temperature between 70°c-80°c. Cold smoked fish is raw and is usually cooked
before being eaten. Fish to be smoked may be gutted or left whole. It is then soaked or left
whole in strong salt solution (brine). In some cases, a day is added to improve colour. After
that it is drained and hung on racks in a kiln (oven) and exposed to smoke for 5-6 hours.
De-scaling and cleaning of fish for cooking
 Clean the fish well under cold running water.
 The blunt side of the knife should be used, or other coarse tools can be used to descale the
 Scraping is done from the tail first and then it is washed.
 Cut-off the fins and remove the head. Entrails should be removed by cutting the fish lengthwise from the vent-end towards the head on the belly side.
Food Production Operation 84
The culinary operation of subjecting food to the action of heat is cooking. It is an art of application
of heat to prepare food. It means that one knows a great deal about the practical aspects of cookery
and cooking techniques. In summary, the art of cooking means providing high-quality food and
service to the complete satisfaction of the guest.
Cooking is a process where many steps are involved to complete the food item. It includes
purchasing of quality ingredients, receiving, storing at appropriate temperature, handling and prepreparing, actual preparation and presentation for serving.
The objective of cooking is to bring chemical and physical change in food to make it a
complete dish. It makes food eatable, improves its flavor or makes it easier to digest. Cooking also
makes eye appealing, creates an appetite, and destroy harmful bacteria and parasite. While cooking
more than two ingredients of food commodities are combined.
Aim of Cooking:
One of the interesting invention human civilizations attainted is the ability to cook their food. We
cook food for different purpose.
 Chemical changes: By the help of cooking the food becomes either edible or easier to
digest. Through softening coagulation, swelling or dissolving. By cooking, the collagen in meat is
destroyed, which makes it tender, the cellulose fibers of vegetables are also softened. The pectin of
fruits is released and starch increases in volume by cooking.
 Change in appearance: Cooking and preparations change the appearance of the food and
becomes more appetizing. For example, the browning by grills and ovens, the glazing of
vegetables, the caramelized of sugar, etc. change the appearance of the food.
 Development of aroma and flavors: The taste of the basic ingredients is improved by
cooking when we add extra flavors, condiments, herbs, wine, etc. Reducing liquid by cooking
gives a more pronounced flavor, and marinating food adds flavor before cooking.
 Elimination of the harmful bacteria and parasites, which are destroyed by heat.
Methods of Cooking and Processing:
The process of cooking requires the transfer of heat energy to the food by conduction, convection or
radiation. The cooking methods can be divided into two categories moist heat media and dry heat
media. The moist heat media includes boiling, blanching, poaching, stewing and steaming. Water is
an excellent and uniform heat conductor. As water heats, very fine bubbles of air rise from the
bottom of the pan and burst on the surface of the water. At this stage, the temperature of the water is
between 95 degrees and 98 degree Celsius and we say that water is simmering. As the temperature of
water rises, splashing bubbles are created and a rolling boil develop. At this stage the temperature of
water has reached 100 degrees Celsius and we say that the water is boiling. In moist heat method,
stem also used for bulk preparation of meats, rice, potatoes to preserve the shapes and cook
uniformly. Dry heat media includes different methods where water is not used; they are oven
roasting, spit roasting, tan door roasting, pot roasting, grilling, sautéing, shallow frying, deep frying,
baking, etc. Tender cuts of meats are best cooked by dry heat method. The combination media of
moist and dry heat is braising.
Food Production Operation 85
Cooking Method
Moist Heat Dry Heat Dry Heat using fat
 Boiling
 Blanching
 Simmering
 Poaching
 Steaming
 Stewing
 Braising
 Roasting
 Oven Roasting
 Pot Roasting
 Tandoor Roasting
 Spit Roasting
 Grilling
 Baking
 Frying
 Shallow/ Pan Frying
 Deep Frying
 Sautéing
1. Boiling: To cook food in boiling water or stock is „boiling‟ method of cooking. Vegetables
grown above the ground are cooked in boiling salted water and vegetables grown below the
ground are started in cold salted water with the exception of new potatoes and new carrots. Dry
vegetables are started in cold water. Meats should be strongly boiled at first then the heat
reduced and allowed to simmer. Only just sufficient liquid should be used to cover the food to be
Temperature: 100 º C
Food suitable: Farinaceous products, potato, vegetable, rice, etc.
Application: Liquid must be allowed to boil vigorously. Immerse food material and re-establish
boiling point. Maintain boiling temperature until food is cooked to desired doneness.
Guidelines in cooking pasta: Cook in plenty of boiling water (10 parts of water to 1 part of pasta)
Oil is added to prevent pasta from clinging together. Stir to boil (to prevent sticking) and cooked at
al dente (cooked at firm) stage. If not used immediately, refresh, drained and oiled to prevent
sticking. To serve, refresh / reheat in hot salted water or sauté in butter.
Basic rules for boiling:
– The food should be completely boiled.
– Scum that arises during the boiling must be removed if not it will discolor and spoils the
– Fast boiling is recommended for green vegetables.
– The pan should be uncovered while boiling.
– Root vegetables must be placed in cold salted water and start boiling. Vegetables grown
above the ground are cooked in boiling salted water.
 Simmering is to cook food slowly and steadily in liquid over gentle heat, just below the boiling
Temperature: 92 º C to 98 º C
Purpose: To soften tissue of food with least loss of cooking liquid. To maintains
shape of the food materials, and to prevent cloudy appearance in stocks and soups.
 Blanching: To soften food structure by cooking for short period of time in boiling water or in
oil. Food is blanched by placing in boiling water for a short period of time, and then refreshed in
cold water. The purpose of this process is to destroy the enzymes, which are responsible for
discoloration, and also to prevent loss of nutrients especially Vitamin C. Chefs also use this
method of cooking for bones and meat so as to remove unpleasant smell, impurities as well as to
Food Production Operation 86
seal the surfaces to prevent loss of juices and nutrients. Examples of food items that can be
blanched are bones, green leafy vegetable, poultry, meat, etc.
Temperature: 95 degree Celsius to 98 degree Celsius in water, and 140 degree
Celsius to 160 degree Celsius in oil
 Suitable foods: cuts of vegetable, fish, poultry, potatoes, etc.
Blanching is actually a preliminary cooking process to other cooking methods e.g. pan
frying, sautéing, braising, etc.
 Functions: To pre-cook, to remove excess salt, to retain color, to seal the surface, to retain
shape, to increase holding qualities, to cleanse (remove undesirable flavor)
 Application: Bring liquid to required temperature. Plunge items into liquid according to
following guidelines:
Starting in cold water causes cells to open, leeching out blood and excess salt. Starting in
boiling water causes the cells to close and seal in the flavors and natural juices. Starting in
boiling liquid maximize retention of flavor. Leafy vegetables are blanched or boiled in
boiling water. Root vegetables should be boiled starting in cold water unless size has been
reduced. Skim away any scum in cooking liquid as this affects the quality of the food, and
pre- cook to desired doneness.
 Refresh the items:
To refresh means to run cold water over food that has just been blanched, to cool it rapidly.
Items are sometimes soaked in iced water for a while.
 Functions to refresh: To stop cooking, to retain color, to retain required texture. To retain
available vitamins and minerals.
 To minimize the loss of nutrients: Avoid holding vegetables in liquid before and after
cooking. Rinse, trim, cut and cook vegetables as close as possible to cooking time. Cook
vegetables as quickly as possible, in as little liquid as possible. When feasible, stem or
microwave vegetables or bake them in their own skins.
2. Poaching: Poaching refers to cooking raw food in minimum amount of liquid just below the
boiling point. This technique is mainly applied to foods with delicate structures, such as fish,
egg, and seafood. Poaching is done in liquid (water, stock, milk) without bubbling. When
poaching eggs, a little vinegar and salt are added to the liquid to help in quicker coagulation and
thus prevent disintegration. Poached dishes are delicate in texture and rich in flavor, which
makes them attractive to customers.
Temperature: 65 º C to 85 º C
Food suitable: Fish, poultry, dumpling, eggs, custard, galantines, butter sauces,
biscuit, sponge, terrines, etc.
Application: Liquid (stock) must be just above food, Heated up to the shivering point. Item is gently
placed into court bouillon. Temperature is maintained. Cooked to desired doneness. Liquid is used
for sauce making.
3. Steaming: Steaming is cooking by moist heat that is water vapor. Food is cooked by direct or
indirect steaming. The food should be cooked by steam in fast boiling water. It is done either by
placing the food in the perforated container over a pot of boiling water or in the steamer. Food
cooked by this method is easily digested. Steaming preserves all nourishment and flavor
contained in the food and cannot be over cooked. Food cooked by the action of heat in the form
of steam and there are two variations of the steaming method: Steaming without pressure and
steaming with pressure. Steaming without pressure is wet steam.
Food Production Operation 87
 Application: Heavy pot and lid with perforated base is used. Flavored liquid/ stock are
boiled, and Food is placed on the perforated base. Some steam does escape in this process
and water may be added if possible.
 Steaming with pressure:
A pressure steamer is a steam cooker that holds in steam under pressure. The temperature of
the steam would be higher than 100 º C.
When food is steamed, the structure and texture is changed by chemical action and becomes
edible. The texture will vary according to the type of food, type of steamer and degree of heat
e.g. sponges and puddings are lighter in texture if steamed rather than baked.
 Food suitable: vegetable, rice, soup, poultry, fish, meat, potatoes etc.
 Advantages of steaming: Retention of nutrition value. Low pressure cooking reduces risk of
overcooking protein. Rapid cooking heat and time apply for high pressure. It is labor saving
and suitable for large production and retention of appearance.
 General rules for steaming:
– Prepare the vessel that boils water fast.
– Container used inside the steamer should be greased and covered with light fitting lid.
– Never allow the water in the steamer to go off the boil.
– Dish out food quickly and serve hot.
– Only suitable food is advised to steam. Green vegetables are not suitable to steaming as they
4. Stewing: This is a very gentle method of cooking in a closed pan using only a small quantity of
liquid. As the liquid is not allowed to boil during cooking food should never be more than half
covered with the liquid. A lid is used to present evaporation when the stewing process takes place
either in the oven or on top of a stove. It is an economical method of cooking cheap cuts, tough
and old meat; poultry are cooked in this of method. So it is to cook food of smaller sizes and
shapes while completely surrounded by liquid. The sauce is served together.
Temperature: 120 º C to 140 º C
Food suitable: Tough cuts of lamb/ mutton, beef, pork and game (Applies for
braising also), Vegetable e.g. red/ white cabbage.
 Meat: Cubes of meat are sealed in oil. Flavoring elements are added.
The use of salt at the beginning of the cooking process should be kept at a minimum because
there are natural salts in the food items. Stock / liquid is added, cooked covered in oven or on
stove. Garnishes required are normally cooked separately to avoid it from breaking up.
 Vegetable/Fruits: Fruits/ vegetables are cut into required sizes and shapes. Stock or sugar is
added. Stew is cooked slowly in covered pan in the oven or on stove.
 General rules of stewing:
– Have a thick bottomed pan with a well –fitting lid.
– Prepare the food and cut in to small pieces convenient for serving.
– Bring just to boiling point and simmer very gently until the food is perfectly tender „a stew
boiled is a stew spoilt’.
5. Braising: This is a combined method of roasting and stewing or roasting and steaming in a pan
with tight fitting lid or in casserole (pot). The meat should be sealed by browning on all sides and
then placed on lightly fried root vegetables, stock, sauce or gravy is added which should come to
two thirds of the meat. The flavoring and seasoning are then added. The lid is put on and it is
allowed to cook gently. Meat is the most used food item to be braised. Braising makes tough
meat tender. To soften large cuts of relatively firm structure with sauce/ stock on covered pot in
Food Production Operation 88
the oven. It is a moist heat cooking application on with small amount of liquid to cover food
Food is cooked by roasting and stewing/simmering and stewing. The presence of moist heat in
the enclosed environment gently penetrates the tough connective tissue. Hence, there is better
retention of flavors and nutrients.
Temperature: 150 º C to 200 º C
Meat: Preparatory work is done and meat is seasoned.
Larding is to insert thin strips of fats into lean or tough meat using a larding needle. Its purpose is
to add moistness and flavor to the meat (applicable to roasting as well). Meat, poultry and game are
trussed. The importance of trussing is to retain shape by tying with a butcher string.
 Sealed in oil to provide flavor, appearance and color to the base sauce.
 Lay in pan half covered with liquid.
 Braised with cover in the oven.
 Baste and turn meat occasionally.
 Remove meat: Meat is cooked when a skewer can be pushed into it with little resistance.
 Strained and reduce sauce (to concentrate flavor before serving)
Vegetable: Limited or no fat is used. Browning not required. Vegetables (blanched/ raw) lay in pan
half covered with liquid (stock/ liquor) Liquid obtained from a braised vegetable is seldom used to
make its sauce because of its flavor. It is best to serve with a sauce made separately.
Advantages of cooking in the oven: Uniform cooking. Gentle transference of heat (hot air) than
open flameless has chances of overcooking. Less attention is needed. Range is free for other
Difference between Braising and Stewing
Braising Stewing
1. Large cuts Smaller cuts
2. Longer cooking time Shorter cooking time
3. Cooked in oven Cooked in oven or stove
4 High cooking temperature Low cooking temperature
6. Roasting: Roasting is cooking by using radiated heat with the aid of fat. This process can be
carried out using a spit or an oven and is recommended for fine quality products such as sirloin
of beef, rib of beef, saddle of venison, spring chicken, etc. There are different ways of roasting;
 Oven roasting: Oven roasting refers to cook food by surrounding them with hot and dry air,
usually in the oven. The meat is constantly basted and turned round for even cooking and for
color. The food is roasted on the bed of root vegetables. The food is cooked in to a fairly hot
(230°) oven for 5 to 10 minutes and the temperature is reduced to allow the joint to be cooked
through. Cooking in a moderate hot oven (170) for a longer time produces a better cooked joint
and less shrinkage also than cooking at high temperature for a short period. Oven roasting is
more appreciated as the meat retains its moisture and flavor. Baste: To prevent a roast from
drying by spooning drippings over it. Food items are cooked to various degrees to doneness.
Temperature: 150 º C to 250 º C, Research shows that using low temperature
produces more flavorful and juicier roasts with less shrinkage.
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Food suitable: Beef: loin, ribs, fillet & sirloin
Lamb: leg, shoulder, saddle, loin, rack & best end.
Veal: leg, loin & best end
Others: poultry, game, potatoes & vegetables.
Preparation of meat: Select top grade meat with some fat covering e.g. prime ribs, rib eye. Trim
and secure meat with strings (truss). Poultry and game should be trussed and seasoned. Additionally,
lean meat is usually larded (inserted with strips of fat). Game birds are sometimes larded, that is
wrapped in thin sheets of lard. The purpose of both methods is to moisturize the meat fiber and make
it more palatable. Meat should not be seasoned in advance (higher moisture loss).
Roasting pan with oil is heated up. Meat is sealed in hot oil and put in oven. Sealing is to minimize
the loss of natural juices especially when meat is not fully cooked. Begin with high temperature.
Baste and turn meat to develop color and crust.
Why must roasted meat be rested before carving?
Allow juices to soak. Prevent shrinkage when meat turns is sliced. Easier carving when meat turns
up. Always carve against the grain of the meat.
Roasting time: There is no definite rule on the duration of roasting. It depends on: Weight and size
of meat. Thickness of meat and desired doneness.
Testing meat doneness
1. Needle test: Needle inserted in to middle of roast. Temperature of needle is felt at tip of
edge. Color of juices indicates degree of doneness.
2. Thermometer test: Tip of the thermometer is inserted into the thickest part of the roast.
Core temperature will be reflected on the scale.
3. Finger test: This is the normal practice of checking manually.
 Spit roasting: It is original form of roasting by direct heat and basted with fat and is also turned
regularly to ensure even cooking and brewing. This method is not often used as only good
quality meats are suitable for it. Roast meats however, have a very good flavor, and are still
served in large hotels, in special restaurants, departmental stores, on the roadside in the heart of
the city. Spit roasting, one of the oldest methods of cooking refers to the roasting of meat cuts or
carcasses by suspending them over the fire.
 Pot roasting: The method is used to cook small joints of meats. Tender good quality meats,
games or whole spring chicken is better cooked by this system. If no oven is available a thick
heavy pan is used. In this method cooking is done on a bed of root vegetable which is used as a
good stock to form the basis of the accompanying sauce or grave. Enough fat is melted to cover
the bottom of the pan, when fat is hot the joint is browned. It is then lifted out and 2 or 3 skewers
Degree of cooking Cooking temperature (º C) Juice color
Rare 55 Dark red
Medium rare 55 Red
Medium 60 Pinkish
Medium well 65 Traces of blood in juice
Well done 70 (beef),77 (veal & lamb),
85 (pork & poultry)
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are put into the pan, on which the joint is placed. This is to prevent joint from sticking to the pan.
The pan is then covered tightly with a well-fitting lid and cooked over a very slow fire. The chief
advantage of this cooking system is that it retains the flavor and goodness in the joint.
 Tandoor roasting: The system of cooking in clay oven is known as tandoori. The system is
more popular in north India. In this method food is cooked in a specially made clay oven which
is heated by charcoal. The meat to be cooked by this method is marinated with species and
skewered on rods. Roti, Naan, Paratha are also cooked by this method.
7. Grilling: Grilling is the fastest dry heat method of cooking. It can be done using the salamander
or infra-red waves or on grill bars heated by charcoal. However, to cook food by this method the
food items must be in their freshest state. To cook food items on an open grill bar to various
degree of doneness over a heat source.
The term “broiling” is sometimes used interchangeably with grilling. However, broiling is a method
of cooking food by heating from the top. Griddling is a similar method of cooking. It refers to cook
food on a solid cooking surface called a griddle. However, the temperature, at 177ºC, is lower than
that required for grilling. Eggs and pancakes are normally cooked by griddling.
Grilling is dry heat cooking method using very high heat to cook quickly. High heat helps form a
flavor. To achieve full crusty surface browning purposes (meat usually cooked to rare or medium
done to retain juiciness).
Temperature: 150 º C to 250 º C
Food suitable: Tender cuts of beef, lamb, poultry, veal, etc.
Fish, vegetables, egg, corn, tomatoes, etc,
Use only tender cuts of meat with good fat contents. Season meat lightly brushed with oil to prevent
Caution: Too much oil may cause fire which will char the item.
 High heat to seal pores and lower the temperature to cook to desire doneness.
 Use high heat for small pieces and moderate heat for larger pieces.
 Use tongs instead of fork to turn food.
Caution: Fork may pierce into the food and allow juices to escape.
Cooking time: Grilling time will depend on item to be grilled. Thicker items are normally finished in
the oven or lower part of the grill.
8. Frying: This is the most popular method of cooking as this is the quickest method of cooking
food. In this system food is placed or immersed in oil or fat at a sufficiently high temperature.
Then food is browned till the food is partially or completely cooked. There are three methods of
 Shallow frying (pan-frying): It is to cook small portioned food by exposing the surface to
high or moderate heat so as to achieve browning and sealing of food items. Under this
method only a little fat or oil is used. Food is cooked on pre-heated fat or oil on a flat surface
pot. The food is turned over in order that both sides can be browned. Food for pan-frying
should preferably be flat and boneless for quick and even cooking. One of the attractions of
this method of cooking is the intense flavor which develops during frying.
Temperature: 160 º C to 240 º C
Food suitable: Butchers‟ meat, game, poultry, fish (all must be cut into
manageable portions), potatoes, eggs, etc.
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Application: Sufficient fat must be used. If meat is used, they are usually dusted with flour or
breaded. Moderate heat is used and food is burned for even browning. Food is
sealed by oil and fried until golden brown.
 Sauté is also a type of shallow frying which is actually tossing food quickly in a pan over
strong heat. Generally, this method is applied to pre-cooked food. To cook small slices of
food by tossing and exposing the surface to high heat to achieve browning and sealing the
item. Normally applied to “a la minute” cooking.
Temperature: 160 º C to 140 º C.
Food suitable: Butchers‟ meat, poultry, fish, seafood, potatoes and vegetables.
Application: Items are cut into small pieces of flakes. Use small quantity of fat.
Pre-heat the pan (high heat) before adding the food (this is to seal the
surface and avoiding food from simmering in its own juice).
Precaution: Do not overcrowd the pan, as this will lower the temperature.
Difference between Pan frying and Sautéing
9. Deep-frying: The food is completely immersed in pre-heated fat or oil. Special care must be
taken to prevent overheating of fat or oil, as this spoils the food as well as fat or oil. The frying
pan should have sufficient depth. This method of cooking is very popular as it is one of the
quickest methods. Deep-fried food has a satisfying crunchy texture as well as distinctive taste.
Food to be deep-fried is normally coated with protective coatings such as breadcrumbs and batter
to prevent. So it is cooking food plain or breaded by total immersion in oil to brown surface for
better taste and texture. Temperature: 180 º C to 200 º C
Food suitable:
Meat: Poultry, fish, seafood and meats.
Vegetables: Potatoes, eggplant, cauliflower, etc.
Fruits: Pineapple, bananas, apples, etc.
Fat suitable: Fat that can be raised to a high temperature e.g. Palm oil, vegetable oil, ground nuts
oil, etc.
Purpose of breading/coating of foods
i. Retain moisture and flavor in products.
ii. Protect the fat against salt and moisture in food.
iii. Protect food from absorbing too much fat.
iv. Give crispness, flavor and good appearance to the product.
v. Protect from discoloration of products
vi. Protect from loss of moisture and nutrients
vii. Protect from shrinkage and loss of shape.
Pan frying Sautéing
1. Cut into chops, cutlet Cut in cubes or flakes
2. Breaded or dusted with flour Breading not necessary
3. Cooked with more oil Cooked with less oil
4. Cooked with medium heat Cooked with high heat.
5. Turned when browned Tossed or jumped
6. Longer cooking time Shorter cooking time.
7. Sauce is prepared separately Sauce is prepared in same sauce pan.
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Types of coating / breading process
Pane: It is a process when food is coated with flour, egg wash and bread crumbs.
Batters: Batters refer to semi-liquid mixtures containing flour, besan or starch with eggs and water.
It is used in deep-fat frying to give a crisp and flavorful coating. There are variations of batter
recipes. Some use water or milk, others use beer as the “thinning” agent in combination with starchy
ingredients such as flour, rice flour, etc. Often leavening agents are folded into the batters to lighten
mixture (resulting in fluffy end- product). These include baking powder, beaten egg white or
carbonation from beer.
Application: Good quality of oil must be used. Oil should be around half or two thirds full. Oil
must be heated up between 180ºC to 200ºC. Temperature must be hot enough to seal food. Once
indication is when a light haze (vapor) rises from the surface. Moist foods are breaded to retain
moisture and texture. Frozen crumbed food should not be thawed as the food will turn soggy and
coating may even fall off.
Maintaining quality of oil: Never allow oil to smoke. Lower / turn-off heat when not using deep fat
fryer. Never salt over the oil. Skim and strain oil after use. Maintain the clean equipment regularly.
Moisture, food particles, salt, heat and oxygen are enemies of fats. If oil foams, discard it.
General rules for frying;
1. Make food into suitable sizes and shapes and see that it is quite free from cracks.
2. Apply coating evenly, remove any excess and press loose crumbs firmly on.
3. The fat must be quite still and at the right temperature required, before the food is put in.
4. Do not put in too many pieces of food at the same time as this will lower the temperature.
5. Fry to a golden brown on both sides, turning over the food is necessary.
6. Drain well on paper and serve attractively.
7. Once fat has been used for frying, strain and store in cans, replenish the original volume with
fresh fat after each frying period.
8. Do not over load frying basket.
9. Use good quality fat Replace 15% – 20% of fat daily. Discard spent (tired) fat.
10. Fry as close to service as possible. Never cover pot while deep frying. Trapped steam will
make crispy food soggy.
11. Allow the fat to recover heat before adding new batch.
10. Baking: Baking is cooking of food by the action of dry heat by the help of dry steam which
arises from the food in an oven (enclosed environment). Examples of food items that can be
cooked are fish (papillote), breads, pastries, cakes, puddings, potatoes, ham, etc. In this system
the temperature must be maintained as per the commodities.
Temperature: 150 º C to 250 º C
Food suitable: Pastries and bakery goods.
Vegetables, meats, poultry, fish are generally enclosed in pastry or covered or
wrapped in foil. (papillote)
Equipment: Baking moulds, baking trays, convection oven, conventional oven.
Dough used: Puff pastry, choux paste, short paste, sweet paste, bread dough.
Leavening: It is the aeration of product duration fermentation, mixing or baking to
develop shape, volume and texture.
Examples of leavening agents are: Air, Steam and Chemicals / yeast
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a. Pastry / bakery items
 Action activate certain dough (aeration / steam)
 Once moisture dries up, browning develops and eventually crust is formed.
 Some pastry items are blind baked first before adding the fillings (pies, pastry cases, etc.).
b. Vegetable items
 Action of heat causes moisture in food to boil and cook internally. Once it dries up
browning and cooking will have completed.
c. Meat / poultry in pastry crust
 Food is normally pre-cooked or semi cooked prior to being covered in pastry dough.
 Cooking of pastry crust is similar to baking of pastry and bakery goods.
Temperature control:
Strict control of temperature is necessary to achieve desired results:
 Color development.
 Texture
 Standard shape / size.
The final quality of baked products will be affected if:
 Ovens are not pre-heated
 There is draught in the oven
 Oven doors are opened too early.
 There is a power failure.
 Cooking time is incorrect.
Combination cooking process:
Definition: Combination cooking process refers to cooking by using a combination of both moist
and dry heat or simultaneously. Nowadays, the process of combining cooking methods is simplified
by the use of a single unit, “Combi-oven.” This uses a combination of hot air and steam to intensify
the cooking process. The procedures, for examples, of basting during roasting, bake with damping,
or turning of joint that are required when using conventional methods and equipment, are no longer
necessary when a combi-oven is used.
Examples of conventional methods:
 Steaming followed by pan frying.
 Poaching followed by gratinating.
 Blanching followed by roasting.
Moist heat is usually applied first because:
 To seal the surface / pores.
 To pre-cook (soften cellulose or fiber)
Dry heat is applied at the end of process:
 To complete cooking process
 To develop color and enhance appearance.
 To intensify aroma and flavor.
Advantages of Combi- oven
 Reduced cooking time resulting in less fuel consumption and increase productivity.
 Human resource requirement reduced especially for banquet production.
 Nutrition loss is minimal.
 Little flavor transference and less chance of overcooking.
 Combi-heat intensifies cooking process resulting in faster cooking and less weight loss.
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A cuisine is specific set of cooking traditions and practices, often associated with a specific culture
or region. Each cuisine involves food preparation in a particular style, of food and drink of particular
types, to produce individually consumed items or distinct meals. A cuisine is frequently named after
the region or place where it originated. A cuisine is primarily influenced by the ingredients that are
available locally or through trade.
Indian Cuisine:
The cuisine of India is one of the world’s most diverse cuisines, characterized by its sophisticated
and subtle use of the many spices, vegetables, grains and fruits grown across India. The cuisine of
each geographical region includes a wide assortment of dishes and cooking techniques reflecting the
varied demographics of the ethnically diverse Indian subcontinent. India’s religious beliefs and
culture have played an influential role in the evolution of its cuisine. Vegetarianism is widely
practiced in many Hindu, Buddhist and Jain communities.
Italian Cuisine:
Italian cuisine has a tradition of dishes based on wheat products (such as bread and pasta),
vegetables, cheese, fish, and meat, usually prepared in such a manner as to preserve their ingredients’
natural qualities, appearance, and taste.
This kind of cuisine puts a stress on lightness and healthy nutrition with natural unprocessed foods,
and tends to vary greatly not only with the seasons but also between the various regions of the
country: mountainous regions have dishes rich in proteins, and prefer meat, butter, and cheese, while
seaside regions have dishes rich in vegetables and fish.
Mexican Cuisine:
Authentic Mexican food is vibrant, delicious, fresh and fun. It is also colourful, spicy and uses an
amazing array of chillies, both fresh and dried. Many ingredients are readily available everywhere,
such as tomatoes, limes, coriander, red onion, avocado, and corn, and specialty ingredients are
becoming more readily available in Australia and elsewhere.
European cuisine is as varied as the many countries that make up Europe. While there are many
differences between the various cuisines that fall under the term of European cuisine, there are also
similarities. European cuisine employs meat as a central or important ingredient of many of its
dishes, be it in the form of seafood or land-based protein. Not only is meat more widely used, but
portion sizes also tend to be larger.
Also important to European cuisines are sauces, seasonings and ingredients such as wheat and the
humble potato, which are the primary sources of starch.
European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalized south Austrian term collectively
referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries. Western cuisines also put substantial
emphasis on grape wine and on sauces as condiments, seasonings, or accompaniments (in part due to
the difficulty of seasonings penetrating the often larger pieces of meat used in Western cooking).
Cheeses are produced in hundreds of different varieties, and fermented milk products are also
available in a wide selection. Wheat-flour bread has long been the most common source of starch in
this cuisine, along with pasta, dumplings and pastries, although the potato has become a major starch
Food Production Operation 95
plant in the diet of Europeans. Salads (cold dishes with uncooked or cooked vegetables with sauce)
are an integral part of European cuisine.
French Cuisine:
French food is relatively diverse, since the country is spread over a fairly wide range of climates. It
tends to be characterized by a high level of technique, as opposed to say, Italian food, which will
involve simply treating a few high quality ingredients.
A good starting point might be French onion soup, which will be delicious provided you have good
stock and a decent cheese, socca – chickpea pancakes from Nice, which require only chickpea
(garbanzo) flour and water, or a simple braise of beef, wine, bacon, onions and carrots – a sort of
cheat’s boeuf bourginon (Beef cooked in red wine with onions and mushrooms). Steak tartare, which
requires very fresh, high quality steak which is then chopped finely and served raw with an egg yolk,
pickles and a lit hot sauce is easy, but scary for beginners.
British Cuisine:
British cuisine is the set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom. It
has been described as “uncomplicated dishes made with quality local ingredients, matched with
simple sauces to accentuate flavour, rather than disguise it”. However, British cuisine has absorbed
the cultural influence of those who have settled in Britain, producing many hybrid dishes, such as the
Anglo-Indian chicken tikka masala.
Well-known traditional British dishes include full breakfast, fish and chips, the Christmas dinner, the
Sunday roast, steak and kidney pie, shepherd’s pie, and bangers and mash. People in Britain however
eat a wide variety of foods based on the cuisines of Europe, India, and other parts of the world.
British cuisine has many regional varieties within the broader categories of English, Scottish and
Welsh cuisine and Northern Irish cuisine.
German Cuisine:
Germany has a long history. Culture and traditions play a significant part in influencing the cuisine
as well. In most German areas there are large plantations of potatoes, oats, wheat, sugar beets,
Barley, and Red cabbage and carrots are the most important vegetable crops, and are used in many
dishes, from soups to stews and even roasted meat.
Germans tend to eat heavy and hearty meals that include ample portions of meat and bread. Potatoes
are the staple food, and each region has its own favorite ways of preparing them. Some Germans eat
potatoes with pears, bacon, and beans. Others prepare a special stew called the Pichelsteiner, made
with three kinds of meat and potatoes. Germans from the capital city of Berlin eat potatoes with
bacon and spicy sausage. Sauerbraten is a large roast made of pork, beef, or veal that is popular
throughout Germany, and is flavored in different ways depending on the region. In the Rhine River
area, it is flavored with raisins, but is usually cooked with a variety of savory spices and vinegar.
Fruit (instead of vegetables) is often combined with meat dishes to add a sweet and sour taste to the
meal. Throughout Germany desserts made with apples are very popular.
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The stretch from east Siberia south all the way to Indonesia including Mongolia, Japan, Korea,
Vietnam, Thailand and China, makes the geographical area for the word ―The Orient‖. Oriental
cuisine almost always refers to Asian cooking from the Far East region. Cuisine from Southeast Asia
also qualifies as Oriental food, with Thai and Vietnamese being the two that are most well known in
Western nations.
While Oriental cuisine is a broad term that can cover many styles of cooking, what exactly falls
under “Oriental” can also depend on the location.
Classification of Oriental Cuisine
Chinese Cuisine:
The spread of traditional Chinese food began with Cantonese style cooking from the south of China
and this style includes many of the more instantly recognizable Chinese dishes such as stir-fries,
sweet and sour and chop suey. In recent years, Northern style and spicier food from Szechuan and
Shanghai have become better known and understood outside of China.
Each of these styles have developed over time as a result of factors such as the geography, climate,
history, lifestyle and cooking preferences of the region, and all have their own distinct flavor. What
distinguishes them is not only their cooking methods, but particular combinations of ingredients. All
regions use ginger, garlic, spring onions, soy sauce, vinegar, sugar and sesame oil and bean paste,
but combine them in highly distinctive ways, using a variety of different cooking techniques.
Japanese Cuisine:
Japanese cuisine has been influenced by the food customs of other nations, but has adopted and
refined them to create its own unique cooking style and eating habits. The first foreign influence on
Japan was China around 300 B.C., when the Japanese learned to cultivate rice. The use of chopsticks
and the consumption of soy sauce and soybean curd (tofu) also came from China.
The Buddhist religion, one of the two major religions in Japan today was another important
influence on the Japanese diet. In the A.D. 700s, the rise of Buddhism led to a ban on eating meat.
The popular dish, sushi (raw fish with rice) came about as a result of this ban. In the 1800s, cooking
styles became simpler. A wide variety of vegetarian (meatless) foods were served in small portions,
using one of five standard cooking techniques. All foods were divided into five color groups (green,
red, yellow, white, and black-purple) and six tastes (bitter, sour, sweet, hot, salty, and delicate).
Today, Japanese food is mostly soup, noodles or rice, and dishes that include fish, meat, vegetables,
and tofu. The Japanese flavor their foods with dashi (Japanese stock), miso, and soy sauce which are
very low in fat and high in salt.
Japanese cuisine also is a type of Oriental cuisine. Japanese culinary tradition makes heavy use of
fish, as well as sushi and other seafood. This cooking has a very distinct taste and style compared to
many other types of Asian cooking from the far East area, because there is less frying and more
careful preparation of steamed or even raw foods.
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Thai Cuisine:
Thai food is known the world over as being one of the most delicious and flavorful cuisines. With
the utilization of Thai chilies, garlic, herbs and many other aromatic ingredients, Thai food has its
own unique taste. In essence, Thai food encompasses various types of dishes including noodles, rice,
salads, soups and grilled delicacies.
Rice is the main dietary staple of Thailand. Thais eat two kinds of rice: the standard white kind and
glutinous, or sticky, rice. Rice is eaten at almost every meal. Most main dishes use beef, chicken,
pork, or seafood, but the Thais also eat vegetarian dishes.
Thai food is known for its unique combinations of seasoning. Although it is hot and spicy, Thai
cooking is carefully balanced to bring out all the different flavors in a dish. Curries (dishes made
with a spicy powder called curry) are a mainstay of Thai cooking. Hot chilies appear in many Thai
dishes. Other common flavorings are fish sauce, dried shrimp paste, lemon grass, and the spices
coriander, basil, garlic, ginger, cumin, cardamom, and cinnamon. Soup, eaten with most meals, helps
balance the hot flavors of many Thai dishes as do steamed rice, mild noodle dishes, and sweet
Malaysian Cuisine:
Malaysian food is heavily influenced by Thai, Chinese, Indonesian and Indian cuisine. These
influences extend from the use of the wok to the combinations of spices used in many popular
dishes. And with the use and combination of aromatic ingredients such as cumin, coriander and
chilies, Malaysian food has a very full flavored taste.
The coconut, chilly, lemongrass, lime leaves, spices, and saffron constitute its basic ingredients.
They are cooked with fish, meat and vegetables. The Satay, a famous local dish, consists of beef
skewers or marinated barbecued chicken. This dish is served with a delicious peanut sauce.
The backbone of every Malaysian meal is rice, accompanied by generous amounts of fresh seafood,
chillies, curries, coconut milk and always with plenty of spices. As Malaysia is a small island with a
tropical, humid climate, surrounded by sea, it is easy to get fresh fish and tropical fruit and
vegetables very cheaply. However, there is something for every palate, as Malay dishes can contain
chicken, beef, mutton or fish, and unless it‘s a Chinese dish never pork, as the food must be Halal.
There are many Buddhist vegetarian restaurants, and Indian inspired dishes found in Malaysia are
usually vegetarian too, never containing beef.
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 A la carte: A list of dishes on the menu card where a guest can choose what he/she wants to
 Al dente: An Italian term used to denote commodity which has been cooked to a degree
where it still is slightly firm to eat.
 All day dining: A 24-hour multi-cuisine restaurant in a hotel.
 Appraisals: A tool used by the personnel department to evaluate the performance of an
employee at the end of the year.
 Apprentice: Person under training to become a cook.
 Bacon: Meat cut from the belly of pork and it is always cured and smoked.
 Bain-marie: An equipment with hot water used to hold hot food.
 Bain-marie: Water bath containing hot water used for holding hot food.
 Banquet: A place let out to guests for private functions and conferences
 Barding: Covering the meat with a piece of fat or bacon before cooking.
 Bistro: A place which serves fast food or casual food with soft beverages.
 Blast chiller: Equipment used in institution caterings where hot food is chilled in very less
 Bone saw machine: An equipment used in the butchery to saw the meat on the bone.
 Boulanger: French word for baker, who bakes breads.
 Bouquet garni: French for bunch of herbs used to flavor western stocks.
 Bovines: Group of animals comprising of ox, bull, bison, etc.
 Broth: Flavoring liquid obtained by simmering meats and vegetables together also known as
bouillon in French.
 Brunch: Meals which combines breakfast and lunch.
 Buffalo chopper: A machine that uses a sharp blade to mince or chop is also
known as bowl cutter.
 Butchery: A kitchen in hotel, which processes all the meat and fish for usage in the kitchen.
 Canapes: Small titbit savories made in the grade manger.
 Carcass: Body of the animal after slaughtering.
 Chef de partie: Supervisor in the kitchen. Also called CDP sometimes.
 Chef: French word for chief, usually referred to experienced cooks and kitchen managers.
 Combi oven: A convection oven usually used both dry and moist heat for the preparation of
 Commensals: Friendly bacteria that helps humans in many ways.
 Commissary: A kitchen that does the basic mise en place for large scale operation such as
 Consomme: French classical soup which is made with clarified and reduced beef stock.
 Contamination: Presence of harmful microorganisms in food.
 Crouton: Deep-fried cube of bread used to garnish the soups. Nowadays toasting of bread is
done for health reasons.
 Crumbing: Covering the commodity with breadcrumbs or similar things before deep-frying.
 Cuisine: French word for things related to food.
Food Production Operation 99
 Deglaze: To add wine or liquid to hot pan to dissolve the sediments to form a sauce.
 Demi chef de partie: Assistant to the kitchen supervisor. Also called DCDP sometimes.
 Duty manager: A person in charge of the hotel in the night shift.
 Entremetier: A person who is responsible for preparation of vegetables.
 Ergonomics: Scientific approach to lifting weights and using equipment for human use.
 Farinaceous: Fourth course in the French menu which includes starchy dishes such as pasta,
risotto, etc.
 Fine dining: A restaurant which serve food and wine as per order in an elegant style and
 Food poisoning: Sickness caused by food infected with microorganisms.
 Garde manger: A section in the kitchen which is responsible for cold food preparations such
as salads and sandwiches.
 Garde manger: French name for cold kitchen. This is the kitchen that produces salad,
sandwiches, and juices.
 Glazing: To place the meat under a related heat to brown the surface and bring shine to it.
 High risk food: Food rich in protein and which does not need further cooking.
 Hors D’oeuvres: French for starters or appetizers.
 Hygiene: Science that deals with cleanliness and sanitation.
 Industrial trainee: Student who are studying hotel management and go to hotels for their
 Inventory: Physical count of equipment done on quarterly basis for auditing purpose.
 Jus: Also called demi-glaze. It is reduced brown stock till it is thick and glossy.
 Lard: Fat from the pig.
 Larding: Insertion of fat in to the piece of meat.
 Legume: French for vegetables and pulses.
 Liaison: A mixture of one part of egg to three parts of cream, used as thickening agent in
soups and sauces.
 Menu: A list of food items available to the guest in printed format.
 Mise en place: arranging things prior to cooking, putting up things in place.
 Mother sauce: Basic Sauce from which other sauces are derived.
 Muesli: A combination of certain cereals and nut served as a breakfast cereal.
 Muffins: Small individual cupcakes served a breakfast rolls.
 Organic food: Food grown without the addition of pesticides and chemicals.
 Ovines: Group of animals comprising of sheep, lamb, goat, etc.
 Par stock: Minimum level of stock in the stores before reordering is done.
 Pathogens: Bacteria that can caused infection and disease.
 Plat du jour: French for special of the day.
 Portioning: Serving of agreed quantity of food to the guest.
 Pot roasting: Roasting food in closed container.
 Recipe: A written document for a dish which lists ingredients, the quantities, cost, and the
method of preparation.
 Requisition: A format required for withdrawing anything from the stores.
Food Production Operation 100
 Roux: Equal amount of flour and butter cooked to various degree of colour used as a
thickening agent.
 Salamander: equipment used in the kitchen that radiates heat from top.
 Salamander: Equipment used in the kitchen which gives radiated heat to the food.
 Satellite kitchen: Kitchen attached to a particular restaurant, which cooks food for the same.
 Saucier: Cook who is responsible for preparing sauces.
 Show kitchen: Also known as display kitchen, it is a kitchen that opens up into the
 Skimming: Removing the scum floating on top of stock.
 SOP: Standard operating procedure.
 Sous chef: Literally means under the chef. He/she is a person reporting to executive sous
 Steam jacket kettle: A cooking equipment which runs on steam.
 Stocks: Flavorful liquid obtained by simmering bones and vegetables for a prolonged time
Beurre Manie: Raw flour and butter kneaded together and used as thickening agent.
 Swines: Group of animals comprising of pigs, boars, etc.
 Table d’hote: It is a list of dishes, pre-chosen and written on the card. The entire meal is
served when the guest order table d‘hote.
 Thawing: Defrosting the frozen products.
 Thousand-year egg: A cured egg for 100 days; a Chinese delicacy.
 Tournant: A person who relieves cooks on their off days and in exigencies. He/she is a
multi-skilled cook.
 Toxins: Poisonous wastes secreted by bacteria.
 Walk-in: Large fridges where one can walk into.
 Wine: An alcoholic drink made from juice of grapes which has been fermented.
 Yield: The amount of usable meat available after processing.

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