Food production Unit 1


Chapter 1:
Overview of Catering Industry


                   Restaurants are places where food and drink is available at a cost. These catering establishments are an important link in the food chain.The food chain begins with the procurement of raw material such as meat, fish, eggs, milk, fruits and vegetables from its sources. the raw material is processed and packed in food factories, and beverages are bottled in bottling plants and breweries. They are then stored at the required temperatures in warehouses and cold storages ready for distribution by wholesale vendors, agents and merchants. They, in turn, sell these to eating houses for public consumption as meals and refreshments.Tourism is one of the main foreign exchange earners in India. Foreign guests visiting the country require food (board) and accommodation (lodging). This is provided by the hotel and the catering industry. The hotel and catering industry is made up of hotels and rest houses for lodging and restaurants for dining. This industry is expanding rapidly not only because of foreign tourists but also because of the boost to tourism within the country.


Hospitality Industry is basically divided into three major categories. They are: 1.Commercial catering :
2.Transport catering :
3.Welfare catering :
  Commercial catering involves catering for profit and customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction cannot be given priority over profit as the existence of a commercial establishment is possible provided the company has enough money to sustain itself and its staff. Conversely customer satisfaction cannot be neglected as the backbone of any business is its customer. For retention of customer it is imperative that the customer has to be satisfied and happy with the services. The different establishments which come under the category of commercial catering can be broadly categorized into two types. They are: 1.Residential
2.Non Residential
5.Guest houses
7.Circuit house
Non Residential:-
These are business premises that provide the facility of only food & beverage but no accommodation. The establishments which come under this category are:
3:-Fast food outlets
5:-Pastry shops
  Transport catering refers to catering done in the various modes of transport systems like railways, sea and air etc.
Railway catering:
Railway catering in India started in the 19th century and has grown throughout the length and breadth of the subcontinent. People travelling long distances in trains require refreshments and hence canteen and stalls were provided on the large stations. The train would halt for required amount of time to allow passengers to avail of these facilities. The railway hawkers would cater to the economically poorer sections. Later the railway set up railway hotels attached to the railway stations to take care of the need of the people.
Marine catering:
Marine catering includes catering for passengers as well as the crew on board. The modern day luxury cruise liners have very high standard and equipped with facilities like, restaurants, ball room, discotheque, casino, swimming pool, golf course, laundry etc. all on board. On luxury liners service reaches the highest standard. Apart from the different meals served in the most professional way social activities like parties, dance etc. are also organized.

This type of catering involves catering without the motive of profit. Although loss is not objective either. It is generally done out of compulsion or obligation, or a part of legal requirement or charity. Welfare catering is carried out basically in three different type of establishments. They are:
1:Industrial catering
2:Institutional catering
3:Service catering
Airline catering:
Since no cooking facility is available in the aircraft all prepared food has to be carried before the flight takes off. Because of limitations of space and storage facility the pantries are specifically designed and equipped for holding and reheating the food. Today airline catering has become much more sophisticated and airlines are taking more care to plan more appetizing and varied menu. Civil aviation progressed very rapidly after the second world war when large war supply air craft were available for disposal. From 1946 onwards commercial airlines started food service. Initially in-flight services were limited and only light meals and dry snacks were being served. This system continued till airlines started to make international journeys. This made it necessary to serve more substantial meals which resulted in the development of flight Kitchens which met the demand.

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